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Ernest Ansermet - 安塞美
 
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Ansermet
Ernest Ansermet - 安塞美 - 1883-1969
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恩奈斯特•亞歷山大·安塞美(Ernest Alexandre Ansermet,1883年11月11日 - 1969年2月20日)生於瑞士,是瑞士著名指揮家。
本是洛桑的一名數學教師, 1912年他卻在一次音樂會中登台指揮。 1918年他在日內瓦創立了瑞士羅曼德管弦樂團,並一直帶領該樂團直至1969年過身。他通常在歐洲的大城市指揮,如倫敦和巴黎,但也去過美國和蘇聯演出。第一次世界大戰期間和流亡的斯特拉文斯基相識。兩人成為至交,安塞美多次指揮後者作品的首演。
安塞美以演繹斯特拉文斯基的音樂和其他俄國作曲家,如柴可夫斯基,普羅柯菲耶夫和穆索爾斯基的作品享譽國際。特別在芭蕾舞曲方面,安塞美可謂獨霸一方,他指揮的天鵝湖,春之祭和羅密歐與朱麗葉一直被奉為最高演繹。安塞美對無調性音樂很反感,質疑其價值。
安塞美認為,指揮應該背譜指揮,但他自己卻總是帶譜上台,因為他認為,這樣才不至於忽略細節。他指揮的時候,手勢間接明晰,卻很能向樂團傳達自己的思想。
安塞美逝世于日內瓦。
Ansermet was born in Vevey, Switzerland. Although he was a contemporary of Wilhelm Furtw?ngler and Otto Klemperer, Ansermet represents in most ways a very different tradition and approach from those two musicians. Originally he was a mathematics professor, teaching at the University of Lausanne. He began conducting at the Casino in Montreux in 1912, and from 1915 to 1923 was the conductor for Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. Traveling in France for this, he met both Debussy and Ravel, and consulted them on the performance of their works. During World War I, he met Stravinsky, who was exiled in Switzerland, and from this meeting began the conductor's lifelong association with Russian music.
In 1918, Ansermet founded his own orchestra, the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (OSR). He toured widely in Europe and America and became famous for accurate performances of difficult modern music, making first recordings of works such as Stravinsky's Capriccio with the composer as soloist. Also, Ansermet was one of the first in the field of classical music to take jazz seriously, and in 1919, he wrote an article praising Sidney Bechet.
After World War II, Ansermet and his orchestra rose to international prominence through a long-term contract with Decca Records. From that time until his death, he recorded most of his repertoire, often two or three times. His interpretations were widely regarded as admirably clear and authoritative, though the orchestral playing did not always reach the highest international standards, and they differed notably from those of other famous 20th-century specialists, notably Pierre Monteux and Stravinsky himself. Ansermet disapproved of Stravinsky's practice of revising his works, and always played the original versions. Although famous for performing much modern music by other composers such as Arthur Honegger and Frank Martin, he avoided altogether the music of Arnold Schoenberg and his associates, even criticizing Stravinsky when he began to use twelve-tone techniques in his compositions. In Ansermet's book, Les fondaments de la musique dans la conscience humaine (1961), he sought to prove, using Husserlian phenomenology and partly his own mathematical studies, that Schoenberg's idiom was false and irrational.
In his last years, he and his ensemble surprised many by issuing discs devoted to Haydn, Beethoven and Brahms. These performances were not at all conventionally Germanic, and were much criticized at the time of their appearance, but during recent years their vivacity has come to be appreciated more.[citation needed]
In May 1954, Decca recorded Ansermet and the orchestra in Europe's first commercial stereophonic recordings. They went on to record the first stereo performance of the complete The Nutcracker by Tchaikovsky on LP (Artur Rodzi?ski had already recorded a stereo performance on magnetic tape, but this had been released on LP only in mono). Ansermet also conducted early stereo recordings of Debussy's Nocturnes and the Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun.
Ansermet was an ardent man who argued his opinions vehemently. He was notable in Britain for his argumentative rehearsals with British orchestras, who were used to the more jovial style of Sir Thomas Beecham or the more restrained manner of Sir Adrian Boult. His last recording, of Stravinsky's The Firebird, was made in London with the New Philharmonia Orchestra, which included a recording of the rehearsal sessions made as a memorial to him.
Ansermet composed some piano pieces and compositions for orchestra, among them a symphonic poem entitled Feuilles de Printemps (Leaves of Spring). He also orchestrated Debussy's Six ?pigraphes antiques in 1939.
 
 
 
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