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Felix Mendelssohn - 孟德爾頌
 
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Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn - 孟德爾頌 - 1809-1847
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德國作曲家。他是哲學家摩西•孟德爾頌的孫子,成長於一個富裕的猶太人家庭,他們已轉信新教。早年在母親的沙龍上受到啟發,十一歲開始作曲,十六歲時作出了自己的第一首成名曲《降E調八重奏》和《仲夏夜之夢序曲》。他在1829年指揮演出了巴哈的《馬太受難曲》,這是一百年來的首次演出,為巴哈藝術的復活作出了重大貢獻。《宗教改革交響曲》(1832)和《義大利交響曲》(1833)也是這一時期所作。在天主教城市杜塞爾多夫擔任音樂總監(1833-1835)後,他在新教城市萊比錫擔任了同樣的職位。他在那裡成立了布商大廈管弦樂團,並同該樂團一起建立了歷史協奏曲的基本編制,至今仍為大家遵守的一個標準。他曾在柏林擔任管弦樂隊指揮(1841-1845),但卻受挫不少。他一生的最後十年創作了包括《蘇格蘭交響曲》(1842)、《小提琴協奏曲》(1844)和宗教劇《以利亞》(1846)。他最親愛的姐姐芬妮(1805-1847)被認為與他一樣具有相等的音樂天賦,但在同畫家亨澤爾(1794-1861)結婚前一直沒得到鼓勵,之後創作了五百餘部作品。她的去世對孟德爾頌而言無疑是一個沈重的打擊,多年來超負荷的工作一時之間將他擊垮,他在姐姐去世六個月後也不幸離開人世,享年三十八歲。其他作品還包括宗教劇《聖保羅》,幾首音樂會序曲,大型鋼琴組曲《無詞歌》,以及兩首鋼琴協奏曲。
German composer. Grandson of Moses Mendelssohn, he grew up in a wealthy Jewish family that had converted to Protestantism. He was exposed early to his mother's glittering salon, and began to compose at 11. At 16 he wrote his first masterpieces, the Octet in E-flat and the overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream. In 1829 he conducted the first performance of J.S. Bach's St. Matthew Passion in 100 years, greatly contributing to the Bach revival. His “Reformation” (1832) and “Italian” (1833) symphonies date from this period. After serving as music director of the Catholic city of Düsseldorf 1833-35, he took the parallel position in Protestant Leipzig. There he built up the Gewandhaus Orchestra, with which he established the historical concert programming that has remained standard to the present day. His appointment as kapellmeister in Berlin (1841-45) was a source of much frustration. His last decade produced such great works as the “Scottish” Symphony (1842), the violin concerto (1844), and the oratorio Elijah (1846). His beloved sister, Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel (1805-1847), had been considered his equal in musical talent as a girl, but was discouraged from composing until her marriage to the painter Wilhelm Hensel (1794-1861), and eventually wrote more than 500 works. Her death was a severe shock to Mendelssohn; years of overwork simultaneously caught up with him, and he died six months after her at 38. His other works include the oratorio St. Paul, several concert overtures, the large piano set Songs Without Words, and two piano concertos.
 
 
 
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