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Giacomo Puccini - 普契尼
 
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Giacomo Puccini - 普契尼。浦契尼 - 1858-1924
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義大利作曲家。出生於管風琴演奏家和唱詩班指揮的世家,在聽了威爾第的《阿依達》後決心寫作歌劇。在米蘭音樂學院師從龐基耶利(A. Ponchielli, 1834-1886)。在音樂出版商里科爾迪(G. Ricordi)和博伊托聽過他從頭到尾演唱其第一部歌劇《隨想交響曲》後,他獲得了表演機會。第二部歌劇《愛德加》(1889)雖然未獲成功,但《曼儂•萊斯科》(1893)為他贏得國際聲譽。《波希米亞人》剛開始不怎麼成功,但《托斯卡》成功了。受雇的捧場者擾亂了《蝴蝶夫人》(1904)在史卡拉歌劇院的首演,但次年重演時引起熱潮。因家庭醜聞使他心煩意亂,《西部女郎》在大都會歌劇院初演時已是1910年。隨後在1918年演出三部曲《三聯劇》(包括《賈尼•斯基基》)。死前是世界上最受歡迎的歌劇作曲家,他未完成的《杜蘭朵》由阿爾法諾(Franco Alfano, 1875-1954)完成。
Italian composer. Born into a family of organists and choirmasters, he decided to write operas after hearing G. Verdi's Aìda. At the Milan Conservatory he worked with Amilcare Ponchielli (1834-1886). His first opera, Le villi (1883), was performed after the publisher Giulio Ricordi and A. Boito heard him sing through it. His second, Edgar (1889), was a failure, but Manon Lescaut (1893) brought him international recognition. La bohéme (1896) was not initially a success, but Tosca (1900) was. A paid claque disrupted the La Scala premiere of Madam Butterfly (1904), but the next year's revival was a hit. A domestic scandal distracted him, and it was 1910 before The Girl of the Golden West premiered at the Metropolitan Opera. The trilogy Il trittico (including Gianni Schicchi) followed in 1918. He was the most popular opera composer in the world at the time of his death; his unfinished Turandot was completed by Franco Alfano (1875-1954).
 
 
 
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