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Abbado
Claudio Abbado - 阿巴多 - 1933-
Claudio Abbado youtube克勞迪奧•阿巴多 維基百科Claudio Abbado wikipedia阿巴多 googleClaudio Abbado google
義大利指揮家,出生於米蘭(Milan)音樂世家,十六歲入維也納(Vienna)音樂學院主修鋼琴,之後到維也納擔任指揮。曾任米蘭史卡拉歌劇院(La Scala)音樂總監和首席指揮(1968-1986),後兼任維也納愛樂管弦樂團的同樣職務。1989年成為繼卡拉揚(H. von Karajan)之後的柏林愛樂管弦樂團首席指揮和音樂總監。以作風大膽的曲目(包括許多現代音樂)而聞名。
Italian conductor. Born in Milan, he studied piano at its conservatory before beginning to conduct in Vienna. He was long associated with La Scala (1968-86), as principal conductor and ultimately as artistic director, as well as with the Vienna Philharmonic. In 1989 he succeeded H. v. Karajan as permanent conductor and artistic director of the Berlin Philharmonic. He is known for his commitment to adventurous programming, including much modern music.
 
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Ansermet
Ernest Ansermet - 安塞美 - 1883-1969
Ernest Ansermet youtube恩奈斯特•安塞美 維基百科Ernest Ansermet wikipedia安塞美 googleErnest Ansermet google
恩奈斯特•亞歷山大·安塞美(Ernest Alexandre Ansermet,1883年11月11日 - 1969年2月20日)生於瑞士,是瑞士著名指揮家。
本是洛桑的一名數學教師, 1912年他卻在一次音樂會中登台指揮。 1918年他在日內瓦創立了瑞士羅曼德管弦樂團,並一直帶領該樂團直至1969年過身。他通常在歐洲的大城市指揮,如倫敦和巴黎,但也去過美國和蘇聯演出。第一次世界大戰期間和流亡的斯特拉文斯基相識。兩人成為至交,安塞美多次指揮後者作品的首演。
安塞美以演繹斯特拉文斯基的音樂和其他俄國作曲家,如柴可夫斯基,普羅柯菲耶夫和穆索爾斯基的作品享譽國際。特別在芭蕾舞曲方面,安塞美可謂獨霸一方,他指揮的天鵝湖,春之祭和羅密歐與朱麗葉一直被奉為最高演繹。安塞美對無調性音樂很反感,質疑其價值。
安塞美認為,指揮應該背譜指揮,但他自己卻總是帶譜上台,因為他認為,這樣才不至於忽略細節。他指揮的時候,手勢間接明晰,卻很能向樂團傳達自己的思想。
安塞美逝世于日內瓦。
Ansermet was born in Vevey, Switzerland. Although he was a contemporary of Wilhelm Furtw?ngler and Otto Klemperer, Ansermet represents in most ways a very different tradition and approach from those two musicians. Originally he was a mathematics professor, teaching at the University of Lausanne. He began conducting at the Casino in Montreux in 1912, and from 1915 to 1923 was the conductor for Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. Traveling in France for this, he met both Debussy and Ravel, and consulted them on the performance of their works. During World War I, he met Stravinsky, who was exiled in Switzerland, and from this meeting began the conductor's lifelong association with Russian music.
In 1918, Ansermet founded his own orchestra, the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (OSR). He toured widely in Europe and America and became famous for accurate performances of difficult modern music, making first recordings of works such as Stravinsky's Capriccio with the composer as soloist. Also, Ansermet was one of the first in the field of classical music to take jazz seriously, and in 1919, he wrote an article praising Sidney Bechet.
After World War II, Ansermet and his orchestra rose to international prominence through a long-term contract with Decca Records. From that time until his death, he recorded most of his repertoire, often two or three times. His interpretations were widely regarded as admirably clear and authoritative, though the orchestral playing did not always reach the highest international standards, and they differed notably from those of other famous 20th-century specialists, notably Pierre Monteux and Stravinsky himself. Ansermet disapproved of Stravinsky's practice of revising his works, and always played the original versions. Although famous for performing much modern music by other composers such as Arthur Honegger and Frank Martin, he avoided altogether the music of Arnold Schoenberg and his associates, even criticizing Stravinsky when he began to use twelve-tone techniques in his compositions. In Ansermet's book, Les fondaments de la musique dans la conscience humaine (1961), he sought to prove, using Husserlian phenomenology and partly his own mathematical studies, that Schoenberg's idiom was false and irrational.
In his last years, he and his ensemble surprised many by issuing discs devoted to Haydn, Beethoven and Brahms. These performances were not at all conventionally Germanic, and were much criticized at the time of their appearance, but during recent years their vivacity has come to be appreciated more.[citation needed]
In May 1954, Decca recorded Ansermet and the orchestra in Europe's first commercial stereophonic recordings. They went on to record the first stereo performance of the complete The Nutcracker by Tchaikovsky on LP (Artur Rodzi?ski had already recorded a stereo performance on magnetic tape, but this had been released on LP only in mono). Ansermet also conducted early stereo recordings of Debussy's Nocturnes and the Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun.
Ansermet was an ardent man who argued his opinions vehemently. He was notable in Britain for his argumentative rehearsals with British orchestras, who were used to the more jovial style of Sir Thomas Beecham or the more restrained manner of Sir Adrian Boult. His last recording, of Stravinsky's The Firebird, was made in London with the New Philharmonia Orchestra, which included a recording of the rehearsal sessions made as a memorial to him.
Ansermet composed some piano pieces and compositions for orchestra, among them a symphonic poem entitled Feuilles de Printemps (Leaves of Spring). He also orchestrated Debussy's Six ?pigraphes antiques in 1939.
 
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Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach - 巴哈。巴赫 - 1685-1750
Johann Sebastian Bach youtube約翰•塞巴斯蒂安•巴赫 維基百科Johann Sebastian Bach wikipedia巴哈 googleJohann Sebastian Bach google
德國作曲家。生於愛森納赫村的音樂世家,後來成為非常全面的音樂家;從1700年起,他曾經擔任歌手、小提琴師、風琴師。1708年首次接受重要的任命,成為威瑪公爵宮廷的風琴師。隨後的1717-1723這六年期間,他待在科坦親王宮廷,擔任樂長,然後奉派為萊比錫聖托瑪斯大教堂的合唱長,並在那裡終老。自幼浸淫在德國北部的對位風格裡,1710年左右他遇見生動的義大利風格,尤其是韋瓦第的作品,自此,他的許多音樂體現了這二種風格的動人融合。在聖湯瑪斯大教堂,他寫下兩百首以上的教堂清唱劇。他的管弦樂作品包括六首布蘭登堡協奏曲、四首管弦樂組曲、許多大鍵琴協奏曲,而後者是他發明的體裁。他的鍵盤獨奏作品包括偉大的教學套曲《平均律鋼琴曲集》、浩大而未完成的《賦格的藝術》、超凡的《郭德堡變奏曲》、為數眾多的組曲、許多風琴前奏曲和賦格。除了教堂清唱劇以外,他現存的合唱作品包括三十首以上的世俗清唱劇、二首劃時代的受難曲、二首b小調彌撒曲。巴哈的作品在生時未廣為人知,死後幾乎完全埋沒,直到19世紀早期才又大受讚賞。他可說是當代最偉大的風琴師和大鍵琴師。如今,巴哈被視為巴洛克時期最偉大的作曲家,還被很多人視為史上最偉大的作曲家。
German composer. Born in the village of Eisenach to a musical family, he became a superbly well-rounded musician; from 1700 he held positions as singer, violinist, and organist. His first major appointment, in 1708, was as organist at the ducal court at Weimar. This was followed by a six-year stay (1717-23) as kapellmeister at the princely court of Cöthen, which was in turn followed by his appointment as cantor at the great church of St. Thomas in Leipzig, where he would remain the rest of his life. Imbued with the northern German contrapuntal style from early childhood, he encountered the lively Italian style, especially in the works of A. Vivaldi, around 1710, and much of his music embodies an immensely convincing melding of the two styles. At St. Thomas he wrote over 200 church cantatas. His orchestral works include the six Brandenburg Concertos, the four orchestral suites, and many harpsichord concertos, a genre he invented. His solo keyboard works include the great didactic set The Well-Tempered Clavier, the huge but unfinished Art of the Fugue, the superb Goldberg Variations, numerous suites, and many organ preludes and fugues. His surviving choral works include (in addition to the sacred cantatas) over 30 secular cantatas, two monumental Passions, and the Mass in B Minor. His works, never widely known in his lifetime, went into near-total eclipse after his death, and only in the early 19th century were they revived, to enormous acclaim. He was perhaps the greatest organist and harpsichordist of his time. Today Bach is regarded as the greatest composer of the baroque era, and, by many, as the greatest composer of all time.
Coffee Cantata - BWV 211 - 咖啡清唱劇 youtube
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Barenboim
Daniel Barenboim - 巴倫波因 - 1942-
Daniel Barenboim youtube丹尼爾•巴倫波因 維基百科Daniel Barenboim wikipedia巴倫波因 googleDaniel Barenboim google
以色列(阿根廷出生)鋼琴家及指揮家。為天才兒童,八歲時首次登台演出。1952年全家移居以色列。1957年在美國首演,與斯托科夫斯基同台演出。1964-1975年擔任英國室內樂團指揮,1975-1989年轉任巴黎管弦樂團指揮,同時他也是個傑出的鋼琴獨奏家和室內樂音樂家,在這方面取得輝煌的成就。1967年與大提琴家杜普蕾(Jacqueline Du Pre, 1945-1987)結婚。1991年擔任芝加哥交響樂團首席指揮。他還致力於促進中東和平的事業。
Israeli (Argentinian-born) pianist and conductor. A prodigy, he made his debut at 8. His family moved to Israel in 1952, and he first performed in the U.S. with L. Stokowski in 1957. As conductor, he led the English Chamber Orchestra (1964-75) and the Orchestre de Paris (1975-89), while pursuing brilliant careers as piano soloist and chamber musician. In 1967 he married the cellist Jacqueline Du Pré (1945-1987). In 1991 he became principal conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. He has been a prominent advocate for peace in the Middle East.
 
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Bartok
Bela Bartok - 巴爾托克。巴爾陶克 - 1881-1945
Bela Bartok youtube巴托克•貝拉 維基百科Béla Bartók wikipedia巴爾托克 googleBela Bartok google
繼史麥塔納、德佛札克之後,在樂壇上建立名聲的東歐作曲家是來自匈牙利的巴爾托克。
巴爾托克的啟蒙老師是母親,在其父於1888年過世後,母親還一肩挑起家庭經濟責任。1894年舉家遷居捷克的伯拉第斯拉瓦城後,巴爾托克開始學習鋼琴與作曲,也嘗試譜寫奏鳴曲與四重奏作品。
1898年巴爾托克得到維也納音樂院的入學許可,但是他卻決定進入布達佩斯科學院,跟隨李斯特的學生Istvan Thoman學習鋼琴,另外還隨Janos Koessler學習作曲。這段期間,巴爾托克初識華格納與史特勞斯的音樂。當史特勞斯的《查拉圖斯特拉如是說》於1902年在布達佩斯首演時,巴爾托克得到與作曲家見面的機會。這次會面對他影響很大,1903年所寫的交響詩《科蘇特》,就是利用史特勞斯的理論和李斯特的主題變形手法為基礎,所譜寫的時段描繪性音樂。1904年《科蘇特》在布達佩斯和曼徹斯特首演。
幾乎同時間,巴爾托克對匈牙利音樂產生興趣,1905年,他和高大宜合作,在1906年他們第一批匈牙利改編曲發表;次年,他成為Thoman在布達佩斯科學院的繼任者,使他能夠定居匈牙利,繼續民間歌曲蒐集工作。
高大宜之後前往巴黎,回到匈牙利時也帶回德布西的音樂,兩人開始接觸當代新的和聲法,開啟新視野,巴爾托克的音樂逐漸受到德布西的影響。1908年發表的小提琴協奏曲仍然是傳統的交響曲形式,但是同時間所發表的一些鋼琴小品,卻開始顯現新的、屬於巴爾托克自己音樂語言。這個階段以1910年發表的《第一號弦樂四重奏》為代表作。1912年至1914年的期間,巴爾托克幾乎是放棄作曲,獻身於收集、重編、研究民間音樂的工作,直到第一次世界大戰時,才結束他的研究工作。
他回頭積極創作後,《第二號弦樂四重奏》和芭蕾《木偶王子》兩部作品陸續問世,1917年於布達佩斯首演。次年,歌劇《藍鬍子城堡》再次上演,他同時著手創作第二部芭蕾《神奇的官員》,但因為主題的問題和涉及到性的描述,這部芭蕾遲至1926年才正式首演。在譜寫《神奇的官員》時,巴爾托克受到到史特拉汶斯基與荀伯格的音樂,音樂結構漸趨複雜,例如,兩首於1921-1922年所做的小提琴奏鳴曲。在此同時,他漸漸獲得一些國際名聲,作品陸續在國際間出版,他受邀到全歐洲演出這些作品。為了自己的演出所需,巴爾托克接連有作品問世,1923年受邀為布達佩斯五十週年市慶音樂會譜曲,發表《舞蹈組曲》;《第一號鋼琴協奏曲》也是這個時期的作品,其鋼琴作品的特徵是:利用木琴的堅硬性和它的共鳴原理,讓鋼琴曲發出如同打擊樂般響亮的聲音。他在後來兩首弦樂四重奏中還持續運用這類方法。
接連問世的《第二號鋼琴協奏曲》、《第五號弦樂四重奏》、《為弦樂、打擊樂與鋼片琴所寫的合奏曲》與《雙鋼琴與打擊樂奏鳴曲》等作品更趨成熟,和聲更為自然。當時匈牙利的政治情勢非常混亂,故兩首作品都是在瑞士首演。
1923年,巴爾托克離婚,同年再婚,1940年他第二任妻子離開歐洲定居紐約。發表音樂會,巴爾托克並領有大學的獎助金,以研究斯拉夫民族音樂,但是經濟狀況和健康狀況一樣,越來越不穩定。他最後一首作品《第三號鋼琴協奏曲》是想要為他的遺孀多掙點收入,幾乎在他過世時完成,另遺留有一首《中提琴協奏曲》未完成。
英文資料暫缺
 
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Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven - 貝多芬 - 1770-1827
Ludwig van Beethoven youtube路德維希•范•貝多芬 維基百科Ludwig van Beethoven wikipedia貝多芬 googleLudwig van Beethoven google
德國出生的奧地利作曲家。生於波昂的音樂世家,自幼就是天賦絕佳的鋼琴師和小提琴師。在波昂擔任九年的宮廷樂師後,遷居維也納,受教於海頓門下,並在那裡終老。他很快成為人盡皆知的演奏大師和作曲家,並成為第一位拋棄教堂或宮廷職位而成功維生的重要作曲家(雖然有三位識其才氣的貴族無條件地付給他年金)。他以獨特方式跨越古典時期和浪漫時期。他驚人的《英雄交響曲》(1803)就是宣布浪漫世紀來臨的那聲霹靂,此曲體現了龐大但嚴格控制的能量,此即貝多芬風格的標記。體形上,他矮小而不具吸引力,而且隨著年齡的增長性情變得越發古怪。約1795年起耳朵漸聾,導致了幾乎自殺的憂鬱症,而約從1819年起就完全失聰。儘管有過幾次無望的愛情,他一直保持單身。在世的最後十五年裡,他是無與倫比的世界首席作曲家。作品包括著名的九部交響曲(1800-1824),十六首弦樂四重奏(1798-1826),三十二首鋼琴奏鳴曲(1796-1822),歌劇《費德里奧》(1805年;1814年修訂),兩首彌撒曲(包括《莊嚴彌撒曲》〔1823〕在內),五首鋼琴協奏曲,一首小提琴協奏曲(1806),六首鋼琴三重奏,十首小提琴奏鳴曲,五首大提琴奏鳴曲,以及幾首音樂會序曲。
    以下曲目摘自《你不可不知道的貝多芬100首經典創作及其故事》。編者:許麗雯。出版:高談文化。初版:2007年1月
 貝多芬 - Beethoven - 交響曲 - Beethoven+Symphony
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 交響曲 - 第1號 - C大調 - Symphony No. 1 in C major - Op. 21
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 交響曲 - 第2號 - D大調 - Symphony No. 2 in D major - Op. 36
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 交響曲 - 第3號 - 降E大調 - 英雄 - Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major - Op. 55 - Eroica
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 交響曲 - 第4號 - 降B大調 - Symphony No. 4 in B-flat major - Op. 60
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 交響曲 - 第5號 - c小調 - 命運 - Symphony No. 5 in c-flat minor - Op. 67 - Fate
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 交響曲 - 第6號 - F大調 - 田園- Symphony No. 6 in F major - Op. 68 - Pastoral
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 交響曲 - 第7號 - A大調 - Symphony No. 7 in A major - Op. 92
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 交響曲 - 第8號 - F大調 - Symphony No. 8 in F major - Op. 93
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 交響曲 - 第9號 - d小調 - Symphony No. 9 in d minor - Op. 125 - Choral
 貝多芬 - Beethoven - 弦樂四重奏 - Beethoven+String+QuartetBeethoven+Grosse+FugeBeethoven+Fuge
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 弦樂四重奏 - 第1號 - F大調 - String Quartet No. 1 in F major - Op. 18 No. 1
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 弦樂四重奏 - 第7號 - F大調 - 拉茲莫夫斯基第1號 - String Quartet No. 7 in F major - Op. 59 No. 1 - Razumovsky No. 1 = Rassumovsky No. 1
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 弦樂四重奏 - 第8號 - e小調 - 拉茲莫夫斯基第2號 - String Quartet No. 8 in e minor - Op. 59 No. 2 - Razumovsky No. 2 = Rassumovsky No. 2
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 弦樂四重奏 - 第9號 - C大調 - 拉茲莫夫斯基第3號 - String Quartet No. 9 in C major - Op. 59 No. 3 - Razumovsky No. 3 = Rassumovsky No. 3
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 弦樂四重奏 - 第10號 - 降E大調 - 豎琴 - String Quartet No. 10 in E-flat major - Op. 74 - Harp
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 弦樂四重奏 - 第11號 - f小調- 莊嚴的 - String Quartet No. 11 in f minor - Op. 95 - Serioso
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 弦樂四重奏 - 第12號 - 降E大調 - String Quartet No. 12 in E-flat major - Op. 127
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 弦樂四重奏 - 第13號 - 降B大調 - String Quartet No. 13 in B-flat major - Op. 130
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 弦樂四重奏 - 第14號 - 升c小調 - String Quartet No. 14 in c-sharp minor - Op. 131
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 弦樂四重奏 - 第15號 - a小調 - String Quartet No. 15 in a minor - Op. 132
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 弦樂四重奏 - 第16號 - F大調 - String Quartet No. 16 in F major - Op. 135
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 大賦格曲 - 降B大調 - Grosse Fuge in B-flat major - Op. 133
 貝多芬 - Beethoven - 協奏曲 - Beethoven+Concerto
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴協奏曲 - 第1號 - C大調 - Piano Concerto No. 1 in C major - Op. 15
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴協奏曲 - 第2號 - 降B大調 - Piano Concerto No. 2 in B-flat major - Op. 19
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴協奏曲 - 第3號 - c小調 - Piano Concerto No. 3 in c minor - Op. 37
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴協奏曲 - 第4號 - G大調 - Piano Concerto No. 4 in G major - Op. 58
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴協奏曲 - 第5號 - 降E大調 - 皇帝 - Piano Concerto No. 5 in E-flat major - Op. 73 - Emperor
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴、小提琴、大提琴三重協奏曲 - C大調 - Triple Concerto in C major - Op. 56
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 小提琴協奏曲 - D大調 - Violin Concerto in D major - Op. 61
 貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - Beethoven+Piano+Sonata
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第1號 - f小調 - Piano Sonata No. 1 in f minor - Op. 2 No. 1
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第2號 - A大調 - Piano Sonata No. 2 in A major - Op. 2 No. 2
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第3號 - C大調 - Piano Sonata No. 3 in C major - Op. 2 No. 3
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第4號 - 降E大調 - Piano Sonata No. 4 in E-flat major - Op. 7
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第5號 - c小調 - Piano Sonata No. 5 in c minor - Op. 10 No. 1
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第6號 - F大調 - Piano Sonata No. 6 in F major - Op. 10 No. 2
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第7號 - D大調 - Piano Sonata No. 7 in D major - Op. 10 No. 3
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第8號 - c小調 - 悲愴 - Piano Sonata No. 8 in c minor - Op. 13 - Grande Sonata Pathetique
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第9號 - E大調 - Piano Sonata No. 9 in E major - Op. 14 No. 1
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第10號 - G大調 - Piano Sonata No. 10 in G major - Op. 14 No. 2
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第11號 - 降B大調 - Piano Sonata No. 11 in B-flat major - Op. 22
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第12號 - 降A大調 - Piano Sonata No. 12 in A-flat major - Op. 26
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第13號 - 降E大調 - Piano Sonata No. 13 in E-flat major - Op. 27 No. 1
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第14號 - 升c小調 - 月光 - Piano Sonata No. 14 in c-sharp minor - Op. 27 No. 2 - Mondschein
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第15號 - D大調 - 田園 - Piano Sonata No. 15 in D major - Op. 28 - Pastoral
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第16號 - G大調 - Piano Sonata No. 16 in G major - Op. 31 No. 1
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第17號 - d小調 - 暴風雨 - Piano Sonata No. 17 in d minor - Op. 31 No. 2
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第18號 - 降E大調 - Piano Sonata No. 18 in E-flat major - Op. 31 No. 3
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第19號 - g小調 - Piano Sonata No. 19 in g minor - Op. 49 No. 1
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第20號 - G大調 - Piano Sonata No. 20 in G major - Op. 49 No. 2
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第21號 - C大調 - 華德斯坦 - Piano Sonata No. 21 in C major - Op. 53 - Waldstein
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第22號 - F大調 - Piano Sonata No. 22 in F major - Op. 54
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第23號 - f小調 - 熱情 - Piano Sonata No. 23 in f minor - Op. 57 - Appassionata
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第24號 - 升F大調 - Piano Sonata No. 24 in F-sharp major - Op. 78
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第25號 - G大調 - Piano Sonata No. 25 in G major - Op. 79
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第26號 - 降E大調 - 告別 - Piano Sonata No. 26 in E-flat major - Op. 81a - Das Lebewohl
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第27號 - e小調 - Piano Sonata No. 27 in e minor - Op. 90
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第28號 - A大調 - Piano Sonata No. 28 in A major - Op. 101
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第29號 - 降B大調 - 漢默克拉維亞 - Piano Sonata No. 29 in B-flat major - Op. 106 - Hammerklavier
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第30號 - E大調 - Piano Sonata No. 30 in E major - Op. 109
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第31號 - 降A大調 - Piano Sonata No. 31 in A-flat major - Op. 110
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第32號 - c小調 - Piano Sonata No. 32 in c minor - Op. 111
 貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴三重奏及鋼琴小品 - Beethoven+Piano+Trio
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴三重奏 - 第5號 - D大調 - 幽靈 - Piano Trio No. 5 in D major - Op. 70 No. 1 - Geister-Trio
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴三重奏 - 第7號 - 降B大調 - 大公 - Piano Trio No. 7 in B-flat major - Op. 97 - Archduke
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 15段變奏曲與賦格 - 降E大調 - 英雄變奏曲 - 15 Variations and Fugue in E-flat major - Op. 35 - Eroica
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 七首鋼琴小品 - 7 Bagatelles - Op. 33
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴曲 - F大調 - 可愛的行版 - Andante favori - WoO 57
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴曲 - a小調 - 給愛麗絲 - Bagatelle in a minor - WoO 59 - Fur Elise
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 依自作主題之32段變奏曲 - c小調 - 32 Variations on an Original Theme in c minor - WoO 80
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 狄亞貝里變奏曲 - 33 Variations on a Waltz by Anton Diabelli - Op. 120
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 六首音樂小品 - 6 Bagatelles - Op. 126
 貝多芬 - Beethoven - 小提琴奏鳴曲 - Beethoven+Sonata+Violin
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 小提琴奏鳴曲 - 第1號 - D大調 - Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 1 in D Major - Op. 12 No. 1
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 小提琴奏鳴曲 - 第2號 - A大調 - Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 2 in A Major - Op. 12 No. 2
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 小提琴奏鳴曲 - 第3號 - 降E大調 - Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 3 in E-flat Major - Op. 12 No. 3
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 小提琴奏鳴曲 - 第4號 - a小調 - Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 4 in a minor - Op. 23
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 小提琴奏鳴曲 - 第5號 - F大調 - 春 - Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 5 in F Major - Op. 24 - Spring
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 小提琴奏鳴曲 - 第6號 - A大調 - Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 6 in A Major - Op. 30 No. 1
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 小提琴奏鳴曲 - 第7號 - c小調 - Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 7 in c minor - Op. 30 No. 2
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 小提琴奏鳴曲 - 第8號 - A大調 - Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 8 in A major - Op. 30 No. 3
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 小提琴奏鳴曲 - 第9號 - A大調 - 克羅采 - Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 9 in A major - Op. 47 - Kreutzer
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 小提琴奏鳴曲 - 第10號 - G大調 - Sonata for Violin and Piano No. 10 in G major - Op. 96
 貝多芬 - Beethoven - 大提琴奏鳴曲及變奏曲 - Beethoven+Sonata+Cello
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 大提琴奏鳴曲 - 第1號 - F大調 - Cello and Piano Sonata No. 1 in F major - Op. 5 No. 1
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 大提琴奏鳴曲 - 第2號 - g小調 - Cello and Piano Sonata No. 2 in g minor - Op. 5 No.2
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 大提琴奏鳴曲 - 第3號 - A大調 - Cello and Piano Sonata No. 3 in A major - Op. 69
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 大提琴奏鳴曲 - 第4號 - C大調 - Cello and Piano Sonata No. 4 in C major - Op. 102 No. 1
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 大提琴奏鳴曲 - 第5號 - D大調 - Cello and Piano Sonata No. 5 in D major - Op. 102 No. 2
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴與大提琴的12段變奏曲 - 12 Variations for Piano and Cello - WoO 66 - WoO 66
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 鋼琴與大提琴的7段變奏曲 - 7 Variations for Piano and Cello - WoO 66 - WoO 46
 貝多芬 - Beethoven - 序曲及藝術聲樂曲 - Beethoven+Overture
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 序曲 - 柯麗奧蘭 - Overture Coriolan - Op. 62
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 序曲 - 艾格蒙 - Egmont Overture - Op. 84
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 土耳其進行曲 - 雅典的廢墟 - Marcia alla turca - Die Ruinen von Athen - Op. 113
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 序曲 - 獻堂式 - Overture aus Die Weihe des Hauses - Op. 124
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 藝術歌曲 - 阿德萊德 - Adelaide - Op. 46
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 詠歎調 - 啊,不忠的人 - Szene und Arie Ah1 Perfido - Op. 65
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 聯篇歌曲集 - 致遠方的愛人 - An die ferne Geliebte - Op. 98
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 合唱幻想曲 - c小調 - Fantasy for Piano - Chorus and Orchestra in c minor - Op. 80
 貝多芬 - Beethoven - 歌劇、神劇及彌撒曲
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 歌劇 - 費德里奧 - Fidelio - Op. 72
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 神劇 - 橄欖山上的基督 - Christus am Oelberge - Op. 85
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 莊嚴彌撒 - D大調 - Missa Solemnis in D major - Op. 123
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 彌撒 - C大調 - Missa in C major - Op. 86
 貝多芬 - Beethoven - 浪漫曲及七重奏
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 小提琴浪漫曲 - 第2號 - F大調 - Romance for Vilion and Orchestra in F major - Op. 50
貝多芬 - Beethoven - 七重奏 - E大調 - Septer in E-flat major - Op. 20
 
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Berlioz
Hector Berlioz - 白遼士 - 1803-1869
Hector Berlioz youtube埃克托•柏遼茲 維基百科Hector Berlioz wikipedia白遼士 googleHector Berlioz google
法國作曲家。早年學習吉他,但經過一番奮鬥後才獲准認真學習音樂。1830年二十七歲時以瘋狂的迷戀寫成《幻想交響曲》,初演時就引起轟動,成為浪漫時期的里程碑之作。他是個才華橫溢的指揮,對於管弦樂的知識無人匹敵。他衝動而熱情,是個好爭論的評論家,不斷地像牛虻那樣挑戰音樂界的成規。雖然他是當時最受人驚嘆的法國音樂人物,但特異的作曲風格幾乎使他所有的音樂作品在20世紀中葉之前都被排除在節目單外。作品包括《本維努托•契里尼》(1837)、《特洛伊人》(1858)和《比阿特麗斯和培尼狄克》(1862);交響曲《哈羅德在義大利》(1834)和《羅密歐與茱麗葉》(1839);合唱《安魂曲》(1837)、《浮士德的天譴》(1846)、《頌歌》(1849)和《基督的童年》(1854)。他的著作《配器法》(1843)是當時這類著作中最具影響力的,他的回憶錄(1870)也廣被人閱讀。
French composer. He studied guitar in his early years, but had to fight to be permitted to study music seriously. His Symphonie fantastique (1830), written at 27 in the frenzy of an infatuation, had a stormy premiere and became a landmark of the Romantic era. He became a brilliant conductor, with an unsurpassed knowledge of the orchestra. Impulsive and passionate, he was a contentious critic and gadfly constantly at war with the musical establishment. Though he was the most compelling French musical figure of his time, his idiosyncratic compositional style kept almost all his music out of the repertory until the mid-20th century. His works include the operas Benvenuto Cellini (1837), Les Troyens (1858), and Béatrice et Bénédict (1862); the program symphonies Harold in Italy (1834) and Romeo and Juliet (1839); and the choral Requiem (1837), La damnation de Faust (1846), Te Deum (1849), and L'enfance du Christ (1854). His orchestration treatise (1843) is the most influential such work ever written, and his memoirs (1870) were widely read.
 
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Bernstein
Leonard Bernstein - 伯恩斯坦 - 1918-1990
Leonard Bernstein youtube倫納德•伯恩斯坦 維基百科Leonard Bernstein wikipedia伯恩斯坦 googleLeonard Bernstein google
美國指揮家、作曲家和作家。哈佛大學畢業後才決定從事音樂工作。在寇蒂斯音樂學院學習指揮,師從藍納後,成為坦格伍德(Tanglewood;在麻薩諸塞州萊諾克斯舉辦)夏季音樂節上的固定演員,在那裡他認識了科普蘭,並成為庫塞維茨基的助理。1943年在一次音樂會廣播中,臨時決定讓他代人指揮,不料一舉成名。1944年他為羅賓斯的芭蕾舞劇《自由的想像》和熱門的百老匯劇《錦城春色》配樂,取得巨大的成功。在指揮方面,與他合作最密切的是以色列、紐約和維也納交響樂團;他首演了許多當代音樂,並在復興馬勒的音樂方面扮演重要的角色。最著名的作品是轟動一時的音樂劇《西城故事》(1956);其他的作品包括音樂劇《奇妙的小鎮》(1952)和《天真漢》(1956)、三部交響樂、《奇切斯特詩篇》(1965),以及舞台劇《彌撒曲》(1971)。他還是個知名的電視演說者和卓越的政治活動家。
U.S. conductor, composer, and writer. Born in Lawrence, Mass., he resolved on a music career only after graduating from Harvard University. After studying conducting at the Curtis Institute with Fritz Reiner, he became a fixture at Tanglewood (in Lenox, Mass.), where he met A. Copland and became S. Koussevitzky's assistant. Fame came abruptly when he substituted on short notice at a concert broadcast in 1943. In 1944 he triumphed with his music for Jerome Robbins's ballet Fancy Free and the hit Broadway show On the Town. As conductor, his closest associations were with the Israel, New York, and Vienna Philharmonics; he premiered much contemporary music and was instrumental in the G. Mahler revival. His best-known composition was the hit musical West Side Story (1957); other works include the musicals Wonderful Town (1952) and Candide (1956), three symphonies, the Chichester Psalms (1965), and the theatrical Mass (1971). Well known as a television lecturer, he was also a prominent political activist.
 
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Bizet
Georges Bizet - 比才 - 1838-1875
Georges Bizet youtube喬治•比才 維基百科Georges Bizet wikipedia比才 googleGeorges Bizet google
原名Alexandre-César-Léopold Bizet。法國作曲家。音樂教師之子,九歲便進入巴黎音樂學院(Paris Conservatoire),十七歲即寫成早熟的《C大調交響曲》。他企圖在歌劇舞台上取得成就,創作了《採珠者》(1863)、《貝城麗姝》(1866)和《賈米雷》(1871)等歌劇。因厭惡法國輕歌劇的輕浮,決心改造喜歌劇。1875年他的傑作《卡門》首演。雖然這部嚴厲的寫實主義作品引起許多流言蜚語,但在國際上卻大受讚揚,被認為是喜歌劇的優秀代表作。《卡門》首演後不久,比才突然辭世,終止了他短暫而卓越的音樂生涯,享年三十七歲。
French composer. Son of a music teacher, he gained admission to the Paris Conservatoire at 9, and at 17 he wrote the precocious Symphony in C major. Intent on success on the operatic stage, he produced The Pearl Fishers (1863), La jolie fille de Perth (1866), and Djamileh (1871). Disgusted with the frivolity of French light opera, he determined to reform the genre of opéra comique. In 1875 his masterpiece, Carmen, reached the stage. Though its harsh realism repelled many, Carmen quickly won international enthusiasm and was recognized as the supreme example of opéra comique. Bizet's death at 37, shortly after its premiere, cut short a remarkable career.
 
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Böhm
Karl Böhm - 貝姆 - 1894-1981
Karl Böhm youtube卡爾•貝姆 維基百科Karl Böhm wikipedia貝姆 googleKarl Böhm google
貝姆出生於奧地利的格拉茨(Graz, Austria)的一個熱愛音樂的家庭。父親雖然知道他有著音樂的天賦,並且也為之感到高興,但並不十分同意讓音樂成為卡爾的職業。卡爾·貝姆於是在作為排練助理和指揮家以學習音樂的同時,學習法律。雖然卡爾·貝姆愛發牢騷和沒耐性出了名,但憑借自己的才華,他於1921年首次被任命為慕尼黑國家歌劇院樂團指揮從而展開他的指揮生涯。1927年在達姆斯達特擔任音樂總指導,1931年遷職漢堡,1934到1943年任職德累斯登國家歌劇院,後來則領導薩克森國家管弦樂團,維也納國立歌劇院等樂團。二次大戰期間曾是納粹黨的擁護者之一,因而有段時間無法上台指揮,直至1947年。
貝姆於1928年首演貝爾格的「伍采克」,並成為「伍采克」與「露露」的權威詮釋者。1933年因「阿拉貝拉」的演出,貝姆與理查·史特勞斯結下不解之緣。之後首演理查·史特勞斯的「沈默的女人」以及題獻給貝姆的「達芬妮」。此外貝姆亦在各地不斷指揮演出莫扎特,華格納,理查史特勞斯等人為數不少的歌劇,及德奧作曲家為主的交響曲作品。1970年因為他對維也納音樂貢獻卓著而榮獲金牌大獎章,並享受奧地利音樂總監督的殊榮。
貝姆逝世於薩爾茲堡(Salzburg)。
總體來說,貝姆的指揮樸實大方,被譽為「精準大師」。雖然有人說他「學究氣」重,可能是針對他忠實原稿而言,但他自然不造作的風格是為絕大多數樂迷所稱道。特別是莫扎特的作品,卡爾·貝姆就是年事已高,也不斷對之研究探索。他演奏的莫扎特簡潔不浮華,又不失幽默。
Born in Graz, Austria, B?hm studied law and earned a doctorate on this subject. He later studied music at the Graz Conservatory. On the recommendation of Karl Muck, Bruno Walter engaged him at Munich's Bavarian State Opera in 1921. Darmstadt (1927) and Hamburg (1931) were the next places he resided as a young conductor, before succeeding Fritz Busch as head of Dresden's Semper Opera in 1934. He secured a top post at the Vienna State Opera in 1943, eventually becoming music director.
B?hm's career prospered after the war, with his native country usually the focus of his work. The Vienna Philharmonic and the Salzburg Festival featured prominently. He additionally resumed ties in Dresden, at the Staatskapelle.
In 1957, he made his debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York, conducting Don Giovanni, and quickly became one of the favorite conductors of the Rudolf Bing era, conducting, all told, 262 performances, including the house premieres of Ariadne auf Naxos and Die Frau ohne Schatten (which was the first major smash success in the new house at Lincoln Center), and many other major productions such as Fidelio for the Beethoven bicentennial, Die Zauberfl?te, Tristan und Isolde (including the house debut performance of Birgit Nilsson in 1959), Otello, Der Rosenkavalier, Salome, Wozzeck, Elektra and others. He conducted at Bayreuth in 1966 and 1967, resulting in critically acclaimed recordings of the entire Ring cycle and also Tristan und Isolde.
Late in life, he began a guest-conducting relationship with the London Symphony Orchestra (LSO) in a 1973 appearance with the LSO at the Salzburg Festival.[1] He was given the title of LSO President, which he held until his death.
Perhaps his greatest contribution to music lay in bringing to life the operas of his close colleague Richard Strauss. B?hm led the premieres of Strauss's late works Die schweigsame Frau (1935) and Daphne (1938), of which he is the dedicatee, recorded all of the major operas (often making cuts to the scores), and regularly revived Strauss's operas with strong casts during his tenures in Vienna and Dresden, as well as at the Salzburg Festival.
B?hm was praised for his rhythmically robust interpretations of the operas and symphonies of Mozart, and in the 1960s he was entrusted with recording a full cycle of the symphonies with the Berlin Philharmonic. B?hm's brisk and plain way with Wagner won adherents, as did his readings of the symphonies of Brahms, Bruckner and Schubert. His 1971 recorded cycle of Beethoven's symphonies with the Vienna Philharmonic likewise drew high regard. On a less common front, B?hm championed and made recordings of Alban Berg's operas Wozzeck and Lulu before they gained a position in the repertory.
He received numerous honours, among them first Austrian Generalmusikdirektor in 1964. He was widely feted on his 80th birthday, ten years later; his colleague Herbert von Karajan presented him with a clock to mark that occasion.
B?hm died in Salzburg. Actor Karlheinz B?hm, the conductor's son, is known for his role as Ludwig van Beethoven in the Walt Disney film The Magnificent Rebel; the young Emperor Franz Joseph in the three Sissi movies; and for playing Jakob Grimm opposite Laurence Harvey's Wilhelm Grimm, in the 1962 MGM-Cinerama spectacular The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm.
 
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Borodin
Alexander Borodin - 鮑羅定 - 1833-1887
Alexander Borodin youtube亞歷山大•鮑羅定 維基百科Alexander Borodin wikipedia鮑羅定 googleAlexander Borodin google
俄羅斯作曲家。自幼即展現語言與音樂的天賦,原在醫學院主修化學,並獲博士學位。後來在醫學院擔任內、外科教授。1862年從巴拉基列夫習樂,由於民族情緒的激發,兩人成為「強力五人團」的核心分子。因為大部分時間從事教授化學工作,音樂作品不多,1869年開始創作《B小調第二交響樂》,同時創作其著名歌劇《伊果王子》(死後由別人完成)。他還寫了兩部弦樂四重奏、十餘首歌曲和未完成的《A小調第三交響樂》以及交響詩《中亞草原》。作品富於抒情性,多表現史詩性題材。
Russian composer. From 1862 he took lessons from M. Balakirev; fired by nationalist sentiment, the two men became the core of the Mighty Five. A professor of chemistry for much of his life, he left a small compositional output, which includes the orchestral suite In the Steppes of Central Asia (1880), two string quartets, and three symphonies, the second of which has remained highly popular. The opera Prince Igor was left unfinished after 18 years of intermittent work.
 
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Boulez
Pierre Boulez - 布列茲 - 1925-
Pierre Boulez youtube皮埃爾•布萊茲 維基百科Pierre Boulez wikipedia布列茲 googlePierre Boulez google
法國作曲家和指揮家。原主修數學,後在巴黎音樂學院師承梅西昂。1946-1956年在雷諾-巴勞爾劇院任音樂指揮。受魏本作品的激勵,1951年開始以完全的序列主義實驗創作音樂。1954年創辦新音樂團體「音樂天地」,並持續指揮至1967年。1971-1978年任紐約交響樂團指揮。1976年在拜羅伊特音樂節指揮華格納的《尼貝龍的指環》,1979年初次公演貝爾格的歌劇《露露》完整版。1974年創建法國國家實驗工作室IRCAM(音樂與音響協調研究學會)。重要作品包括《水太陽》(1948)、《結構》第一集(1952)、《結構》第二集(1961)、《無主之槌》(1957)、《重重褶襉》(1962),以及三首鋼琴奏鳴曲(1946、1948、1957)等。由於他參與的活動十分多樣,包括經常打破常規的著述,因而他是戰後享譽國際的音樂先驅人物。
French composer and conductor. Originally a student of mathematics, he later studied with O. Messiaen at the Paris Conservatoire. He was music director of the Renaud-Barrault theater company 1946-56. Inspired by the works of A. Webern, he began to experiment with total serialism in 1951. He founded the new-music group Domaine Musical in 1954 and directed it until 1967. He was conductor of the New York Philharmonic 1971-78. He conducted Richard Wagner's Ring at Bayreuth in 1976 and the premiere of the completed version of A. Berg's Lulu in 1979. In 1974 he founded the French national experimental studio IRCAM. His important works include Le soleil des eaux (1948), Structures I and II (1952, 1961), Le marteau sans ma?tre (1957), Pli selon pli (1962), and three piano sonatas (1946, 1948, 1957). With his greatly varied activities, including his often iconoclastic writings, he was the principal figure of the postwar international musical avant-garde.
 
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Brahms
Johannes Brahms - 布拉姆斯 - 1833-1897
Johannes Brahms youtube約翰尼斯•布拉姆斯 維基百科Johannes Brahms wikipedia布拉姆斯 googleJohannes Brahms google
德裔奧地利鋼琴家、作曲家,生於漢堡。樂師之子,從小便是個鋼琴神童。1853年認識作曲家舒曼及其妻、卓越的鋼琴家克拉拉•舒曼,舒曼立即宣稱他為天才,舒曼夫人則成為他終身愛慕的對象。1863年移居維也納,這裡是他主要的住所直至去世。曾經擔任過合唱團和樂團指揮、獨奏樂師等職務。《德意志安魂曲》(1868)的成功為他帶來國際聲譽。1876年完成的第一首交響樂,使他更為出名;小提琴協奏曲(1879)和第二首鋼琴協奏曲(1882)則使他獲得偉大作曲家之名。布拉姆斯的作品以古典形態為本,因而被李斯特和華格納的仰慕者視為保守的作品。他的弦樂器作品包括四首交響樂(1876, 1877, 1883, 1885),兩首鋼琴協奏曲(1858, 1881),一首小提琴協奏曲(1878)、一首雙協奏曲(1887)、兩首小夜曲(1858, 1859)和兩首序曲(1880)。他的大型室內樂作品有四首弦樂四重奏、兩首弦樂六重奏、兩首弦樂五重奏、三首鋼琴四重奏、三首鋼琴協奏曲、三首小提琴奏鳴曲、兩首大提琴奏鳴曲以及兩首單簧管奏鳴曲。他還寫了三首鋼琴奏鳴曲和近兩百五十首民謠歌曲。
German-Austrian composer. Born in Hamburg, son of a musician, he became a piano prodigy. In 1853 he met R. and C. Schumann (see C. Schumann, R. Schumann); Robert immediately proclaimed him a genius, and Clara became the lifelong object of his affections. In 1863 he moved to Vienna, which would remain his principal home until his death. He took several positions as choral and orchestral conductor and performed as a soloist. The success of his German Requiem (1868) gave him an international reputation; his first symphony (1876) led to even greater fame, and his violin concerto (1879) and second piano concerto (1882) led many to acclaim him the greatest living composer. His music, grounded in the Classical style, was seen as conservative, especially with respect to that of Richard Wagner and F. Liszt. His orchestral works include four symphonies (1876, 1877, 1883, 1885), two piano concertos (1858, 1881), a violin concerto (1878), and a double concerto (1887), two serenades (1858, 1859), and two overtures (1880). His large chamber-music output included four string quartets, two string sextets, two string quintets, three piano quartets, three piano trios, three violin sonatas, two cello sonatas, and two clarinet sonatas. He also wrote three piano sonatas, choral music, and more than 250 lieder.
 
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Britten
Benjamin Britten - 布瑞頓 - 1913-1976
Benjamin Britten youtube布列頓 維基百科Benjamin Britten wikipedia布瑞頓 googleBenjamin Britten google
受封為奧爾德堡的布瑞頓男爵(Baron Britten of Aldeburgh)。英國作曲家。曾入皇家音樂學院就讀,在那裡結識了男高音皮爾斯(Peter Pears, 1910-1986),兩人成為終身好友。1937年寫弦樂曲《布瑞基主題變奏曲》,獲國際聲譽,接著是《安魂交響曲》(1940)和《小夜曲》(1943)。1945年的歌劇《彼得•格里姆斯》奠定其為大師級歌劇作曲家的地位。1948年在其居住的小鎮與人創辦奧爾德堡音樂節;餘生精力都奉獻給這個音樂節,常在節日裡擔任指揮和演奏鋼琴。他的歌劇包括《盧克萊修受辱記》(1946)、《阿爾伯特•海令》(1947)、《比利•巴德》(1951)、《螺絲的轉動》(1954)、《仲夏夜之夢》(1960)和《威尼斯之死》(1973)等。他的《戰爭安魂曲》(1961)受到極大的回響。其他的聲樂作品包括《卡洛祭典》(1942)和《春天交響曲》(1949);他最著名的交響曲是《青少年管弦樂入門》(1946)。1976年成為英國歷史上第一位受封爵位的作曲家,一般認為他是繼伯德和蒲塞爾之後最偉大的英國作曲家。
British composer. He studied at the Royal College of Music, where he met the tenor Peter Pears (1910-1986), who would become his lifelong companion. His auspicious Variations on a Theme of Frank Bridge (1937) was followed by his Sinfonia da Requiem (1940) and Serenade (1943). In 1945 the opera Peter Grimes established him as a leading opera composer. In 1948 he cofounded the Aldeburgh Festival in the small town where he had settled; for the rest of his life his energies would principally be directed toward the festival, for which he often conducted and performed as pianist. His operas include The Rape of Lucretia (1946), Albert Herring (1947), Billy Budd (1951), The Turn of the Screw (1954), A Midsummer Night's Dream (1960), and Death in Venice (1973). His War Requiem (1961) was greatly acclaimed. Other vocal works include A Ceremony of Carols (1942) and Spring Symphony (1949); his best-known orchestral piece is The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra (1946). In 1976 he became the first British composer in history to be ennobled, and he is generally regarded as Britain's greatest composer since W. Byrd and H. Purcell.
 
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Bruckner
Anton Bruckner - 布魯克納 - 1824-1896
Anton Bruckner youtube安東•布魯克納 維基百科Anton Bruckner wikipedia布魯克納 googleAnton Bruckner google
奧地利作曲家。父為鄉村學校校長,布魯克納年幼時就喪父,他被修道院領養,加入唱詩班,在那裡他學會了演奏管風琴。他天資聰慧,1855年起任林茨大教堂管風琴師;在他的作曲生涯中,他的管弦樂譜曲可與其管風琴的洪亮聲相媲美。1865年他在慕尼黑聽到《崔斯坦與伊索德》,此後華格納便成了他的崇拜對象,不過他自己的作品受貝多芬的影響很大。1868年任維也納音樂學院教授,從此定居維也納。六十歲時才因《第七號交響曲》成名。在社會行為上他比較笨拙和古怪,至死篤信基督教。著名作品包括九部成熟的交響曲(1866-1896)、三首彌撒曲(1864、1866、1868),以及《感恩頌歌》(1884)。
Austrian composer. Son of a rural schoolmaster who died in Anton's youth, he was taken into a monastery as a choirboy and there learned to play the organ. Greatly gifted, he became organist at Linz Cathedral in 1855; throughout his composing career, his orchestrations would be compared to organ sonorities. In 1865 he heard Tristan und Isolde in Munich and thereafter idolized Richard Wagner, though his own works remained indebted to Ludwig van Beethoven. In 1868 he was appointed professor at the Vienna Conservatory and settled in Vienna for the rest of his life. He was 60 before he achieved fame with his Symphony No. 7. He was socially awkward and eccentric, and he remained a deeply devout Christian to his death. His reputation rests on his nine mature symphonies (1866-96), his three masses (1864, 1866, 1868), and his Te Deum (1884).
 
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Chabrier
Alexis Emmanuel Chabrier - 夏布里耶 - 1841-1894
Alexis Emmanuel Chabrier youtube夏布里耶 維基百科Emmanuel Chabrier wikipedia夏布里耶 googleEmmanuel Chabrier google
法國作曲家。雖具有鋼琴方面的音樂天分,但父母逼他取得法律學位,並在公家單位任職,後來他放棄工作,在1880年開始專心從事作曲。1877年歌劇《星》上演;《失敗的教育》於1879(鋼琴伴奏)及1913年(樂團伴奏)上演。最佳作品寫於1881-1891年,其中包括鋼琴曲《十首如畫的樂曲》(1880)、《三首浪漫圓舞曲》(1883)、管弦樂曲《西班牙》(1883)與《快樂進行曲》(1888)、歌劇《飛來的王位》(1887)及六首歌曲(1890)。作品受幽默感與諷刺畫啟發,常採用不規則的節奏型或本鄉布雷舞曲的快速反覆音調。也擅長寫旋律,受巴黎咖啡館音樂會的流行歌曲影響,但略有粗俗傾向。
French composer. Though he was a piano prodigy, his parents obliged him to obtain a law degree and take a government job, but he relinquished the latter in 1880 to pursue composition full-time. His opera Gwendoline enjoyed several productions in his lifetime, but he never achieved significant success. His other works include nine other operas and operettas, including Le roi malgré lui (1887), and the orchestral rhapsody España (1883).
 
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Chopin
Frederic Chopin - 蕭邦 - 1810-1849
Frederic Chopin youtube弗雷德里克•蕭邦 維基百科Frédéric Chopin wikipedia蕭邦 googleFrederic Chopin google
波蘭語作Fryderyk Franciszek Szopen。波蘭裔法國作曲家和鋼琴家。出生於波蘭,父母是法裔中產階級人士。七歲就發表第一次寫的曲子,八歲開始在貴族沙龍中演奏。1830年在華沙正式首演後,獲邀到世界各地巡迴演奏,獲很大成功,使他成為波蘭民族作曲家。1831年定居巴黎,翌年舉辦第一次在巴黎的演奏會,獲得極高的評價。他也是個出名的鋼琴老師,流連於上流社會。1830年代顯然得了結核病。1837年和女作家喬治桑開始了十年的同居生活,1847年喬治桑離開了他。蕭邦不僅是波蘭最偉大的作曲家,也可能是鋼琴史上最重要的作曲家。其卓越的想像力及精湛的技巧使他成為世界最偉大的音樂詩人之一。他的音樂靈感源於自己和波蘭的悲劇性的經歷,旋律獨具個性,表達了內心深處不僅僅是傷感的感情。其作品雖有浪漫主義的本質,但具有古典的純真和分寸,絲毫沒有浪漫主義的表現癖好。除了兩首鋼琴協奏曲(皆作於1830年)和四首鋼琴-管弦樂作品之外,幾乎所有的作品都以鋼琴獨奏為主,作品計有:六十首馬厝卡舞曲、二十七首練習曲、二十六首前奏曲、二十一首夜曲、二十多首華爾滋、十六首波洛內茲、四首敘事曲、四首詼諧曲和三首奏鳴曲。
    以下曲目摘自《你不可不知道的蕭邦100首經典創作及其故事》。撰文:顏涵銳。出版:高談文化。初版:2007年4月
 蕭邦 - Chopin - 鋼琴協奏曲與奏鳴曲 - Chopin+Piano+ConcertoChopin+ConcertoChopin+Piano+SonataChopin+Sonata
蕭邦 - Chopin - 鋼琴協奏曲 - 第1號 - e小調 - Op. 11 - Concerto No. 1 in e minor
蕭邦 - Chopin - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第2號 - 降b小調 - 送葬進行曲 - Op. 35 - Piano Sonata No. 2 in b-flat minor - funeral march
 蕭邦 - Chopin - 敘事曲 - Chopin+Ballade
蕭邦 - Chopin - 敘事曲 - 第1號 - g小調 - Op. 23 - Ballade No. 1 in g minor
蕭邦 - Chopin - 敘事曲 - 第2號 - F大調 - Op. 38 - Ballade No. 2 in F major
蕭邦 - Chopin - 敘事曲 - 第3號 - 降A大調 - Op. 47 - Ballade No. 3 in A-flat major
蕭邦 - Chopin - 敘事曲 - 第4號 - f小調 - Op. 52 - Ballade No. 4 in f minor
 蕭邦 - Chopin - 練習曲 - Chopin+Etude
蕭邦 - Chopin - 12首練習曲 - Op. 10
   12首練習曲 - Op. 10, No. 1 - 練習曲 - 第1號 - C大調 - 琶音 - C major - Arpeggios
12首練習曲 - Op. 10, No. 2 - 練習曲 - 第2號 - a小調 - 半音階 - a minor - Chromatic scale
12首練習曲 - Op. 10, No. 3 - 練習曲 - 第3號 - E大調 - 離別練習曲 - E major - L'adieux
12首練習曲 - Op. 10, No. 4 - 練習曲 - 第4號 - 升c小調 - 音階 - c-sharp minor
12首練習曲 - Op. 10, No. 5 - 練習曲 - 第5號 - 降G大調 - 黑鍵練習曲 - G-flat major - Black Keys
12首練習曲 - Op. 10, No. 6 - 練習曲 - 第6號 - 降e小調 - e-flat minor
12首練習曲 - Op. 10, No. 7 - 練習曲 - 第7號 - C大調 - 觸技風格 - C major - Toccata
12首練習曲 - Op. 10, No. 8 - 練習曲 - 第8號 - F大調 - F major
12首練習曲 - Op. 10, No. 9 - 練習曲 - 第9號 - f小調 - f minor
12首練習曲 - Op. 10, No. 10 - 練習曲 - 第10號 - 降A大調 - 節奏、重音 - A-flat major
12首練習曲 - Op. 10, No. 11 - 練習曲 - 第11號 - 降E大調 - 大和弦琶音 - E-flat major
12首練習曲 - Op. 10, No. 12 - 練習曲 - 第12號 - c小調 - 革命練習曲 - c minor - Revolutionare Etude
蕭邦 - Chopin - 12首練習曲 - Op. 25
   12首練習曲 - Op. 25, No. 1
12首練習曲 - Op. 25, No. 2
12首練習曲 - Op. 25, No. 3
12首練習曲 - Op. 25, No. 4
12首練習曲 - Op. 25, No. 5
12首練習曲 - Op. 25, No. 6
12首練習曲 - Op. 25, No. 7
12首練習曲 - Op. 25, No. 8
12首練習曲 - Op. 25, No. 9
12首練習曲 - Op. 25, No. 10
12首練習曲 - Op. 25, No. 11
12首練習曲 - Op. 25, No. 12
 蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - Chopin+Prelude
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第1號 - C大調 - Op. 28 No. 1
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第2號 - a小調 - Op. 28 No. 2
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第3號 - G大調 - Op. 28 No. 3
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第4號 - e小調 - Op. 28 No. 4
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第5號 - d小調 - Op. 28 No. 5
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第6號 - b小調 - Op. 28 No. 6
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第7號 - A大調 - Op. 28 No. 7
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第8號 - 升f小調 - Op. 28 No. 8
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第9號 - E大調 - Op. 28 No. 9
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第10號 - 升c小調 - Op. 28 No. 10
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第11號 - B大調 - Op. 28 No. 11
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第12號 - 升g小調 - Op. 28 No. 12
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第13號 - 升F大調 - Op. 28 No. 13
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第14號 - 降e小調 - Op. 28 No. 14
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第15號 - 降D大調 - Op. 28 No. 15
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第16號 - 降b小調 - Op. 28 No. 16
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第17號 - 降A大調 - Op. 28 No. 17
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第18號 - f小調 - Op. 28 No. 18
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第19號 - 降E大調 - Op. 28 No. 19
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第20號 - c小調 - Op. 28 No. 20
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第21號 - 降B大調 - Op. 28 No. 21
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第22號 - g小調 - Op. 28 No. 22
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第23號 - F大調 - Op. 28 No. 23
蕭邦 - Chopin - 前奏曲 - 第24號 - 降D大調 - Op. 28 No. 24
 蕭邦 - Chopin - 圓舞曲 - Chopin+WaltzChopin+Walzer
蕭邦 - Chopin - 華麗大圓舞曲 - 降E大調 - Op. 18
蕭邦 - Chopin - 華麗圓舞曲 - 降A大調 - Op. 34 No. 1
蕭邦 - Chopin - 華麗圓舞曲 - a小調 - Op. 34 No. 2
蕭邦 - Chopin - 華麗圓舞曲 - F大調 - Op. 34 No. 3
蕭邦 - Chopin - 圓舞曲 - 降A大調 - Op. 42
蕭邦 - Chopin - 圓舞曲 - 降D大調 - 小狗 - Op. 64 No. 1
蕭邦 - Chopin - 圓舞曲 - 升c小調 - Op. 64 No. 2
蕭邦 - Chopin - 圓舞曲 - 降A大調 - Op. 64 No. 3
蕭邦 - Chopin - 圓舞曲 - 降a小調 - 離別 - Op. 69 No. 1
蕭邦 - Chopin - 圓舞曲 - b小調 - Op. 69 No. 2
蕭邦 - Chopin - 圓舞曲 - 降G大調 - Op. Posth 70 No. 1
 蕭邦 - Chopin - 波蘭舞曲 - Chopin+Polonaise
蕭邦 - Chopin - 降A大調 - 第6號波蘭舞曲 - 英雄 - Op. 53
 蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - Chopin+Mazurkas
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第1號 - 升f小調 - Op. 6 No. 1
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第2號 - 升c小調 - Op. 6 No. 2
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第3號 - E大調 - Op. 6 No. 3
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第4號 - 降e小調 - Op. 6 No. 4
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第5號 - 降B大調 - Op. 7 No. 1
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第6號 - a小調 - Op. 7 No. 2
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第7號 - f小調 - Op. 7 No. 3
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第8號 - 降A大調 - Op. 7 No. 4
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第9號 - C大調 - Op. 7 No. 5
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第10號 - 降B大調 - Op. 17 No. 1
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第11號 - e小調 - Op. 17 No. 2
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第12號 - 降A大調 - Op. 17 No. 3
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第13號 - a小調 - Op. 17 No. 4
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第14號 - g小調 - Op. 24 No. 1
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第15號 - C大調 - Op. 24 No. 2
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第16號 - 降A大調 - Op. 24 No. 3
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第17號 - 降B大調 - Op. 24 No. 4
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第18號 - c小調 - Op. 30 No. 1
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第19號 - b小調 - Op. 30 No. 2
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第20號 - 降D大調 - Op. 30 No. 3
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第21號 - 升c小調 - Op. 30 No. 4
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第22號 - 升g小調 - Op. 33 No. 1
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第23號 - D大調 - Op. 33 No. 2
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第24號 - C大調 - Op. 33 No. 3
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第25號 - b小調 - Op. 33 No. 4
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第26號 - 升c小調 - Op. 41 No. 1
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第27號 - e小調 - Op. 41 No. 2
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第28號 - B大調 - Op. 41 No. 3
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第29號 - 降A大調 - Op. 41 No. 4
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第30號 - G大調 - Op. 50 No. 1
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第31號 - 降A大調 - Op. 50 No. 2
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第32號 - 升c小調 - Op. 50 No. 3
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第33號 - B大調 - Op. 56 No. 1
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第34號 - C大調 - Op. 56 No. 2
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第35號 - c小調 - Op. 56 No. 3
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第36號 - a小調 - Op. 59 No. 1
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第37號 - 降A大調 - Op. 59 No. 2
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第38號 - 升f小調 - Op. 59 No. 3
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第39號 - B大調 - Op. 63 No. 1
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第40號 - f小調 - Op. 63 No. 2
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第41號 - 升c小調 - Op. 63 No. 3
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第42號 - G大調 - Op. 67 No. 1
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第43號 - g小調 - Op. 67 No. 2
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第44號 - C大調 - Op. 67 No. 3
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第45號 - a小調 - Op. 67 No. 4
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第46號 - C大調 - Op. 68 No. 1
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第47號 - a小調 - Op. 68 No. 2
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第48號 - F大調 - Op. 68 No. 3
蕭邦 - Chopin - 馬厝卡舞曲 - 第49號 - f小調 - Op. 68 No. 4
 蕭邦 - Chopin - 夜曲 - Chopin+NocturneChopin+Eine+Kleine+NachtmusikChopin+Serenade
蕭邦 - Chopin - 夜曲 - 第2號 - 降E大調 - Op. 9 No. 2
蕭邦 - Chopin - 夜曲 - 第6號 - g小調 - Op. 15 No. 3
蕭邦 - Chopin - 夜曲 - 第7號 - 升c小調 - Op. 27 No. 1
蕭邦 - Chopin - 夜曲 - 第8號 - 降D大調 - Op. 27 No. 2
蕭邦 - Chopin - 夜曲 - 第13號 - c小調 - Op. 48 No. 1
 蕭邦 - Chopin - 詼諧曲 - Chopin+Scherzo
蕭邦 - Chopin - 詼諧曲 - 第1號 - b小調 - Op. 20
蕭邦 - Chopin - 詼諧曲 - 第2號 - 降b小調 - Op. 31
 
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Cluytens
André Cluytens - 安德列•克路伊坦 - 1905-1967-
André Cluytens youtube安德列•克路易坦 維基百科André Cluytens wikipedia安德列•克路伊坦 googleAndré Cluytens google
比利時指揮家安德列克路伊坦是戰後重要的法語系指揮家,其作品以高貴優雅的氣質見稱於世。克路伊坦來自於一個音樂世家,父親是比利時安特衛普皇家法語歌劇院指揮,所以從小就在音樂氣氛中長大。於安特衛普皇家音樂院學習鋼琴,畢業後擔任父親的助手,並研究指揮法。1926年指揮比才的歌劇《採珠者》首度登台,之後歷任土魯斯、里昂等地歌劇院指揮,1947年成為巴黎喜歌劇院音樂監督,1949繼任孟許,擔任巴黎音樂院管弦樂團常任指揮。1955年應邀在德國拜魯特音樂節指揮華格納的樂劇《唐懷瑟》,大獲好評,之後於1956年於此指揮《紐倫堡的名歌手》,1958年《羅恩格林》,從此以後奠立他歌劇指揮家的崇高地位。克路伊坦擅長近代法國音樂,尤其是拉威爾的管弦樂曲、盧賽爾的管弦樂曲和交響曲、德布西的管弦樂曲集,比才的《阿萊城姑娘組曲》、《卡門組曲》。佛瑞的《安魂曲》尤為崇高優美的傑作。他也曾和柏林愛樂灌錄過貝多芬交響曲全集。在歌劇方面,除了華格納樂劇之外,他著名的錄音有古諾的《浮士德》全曲,穆索斯基的《巴里斯•哥篤諾夫》。(文/杜文仁)
André Cluytens (26 March 1905 - 3 June 1967) was a Belgian-born French conductor.
He was born in Antwerp to a musical family. At age nineteen he graduated from the Royal Flemish Conservatory with first prizes in piano, harmony, counterpoint, and fugue. His father Alphonse was conductor of the Antwerp Opera (the Theatre Royal), and he engaged his son as chorusmaster and coach. He succeeded his father at the opera, conducting productions there in 1927 with his debut being Les p?cheurs de perles. In 1932, he became the conductor at the Thé?tre du Capitole of Toulouse, conducting primarily the orchestra concerts. In 1935 he was first conductor of the Opéra National de Lyon where he became the musical director in 1942. During World War II he led the Vichy summer concerts which may have led to his short-term blacklisting by the musicians’ union at Bordeaux. In 1947, he became the musical director at the Opera Comique where he conducted 40 works between 1947-1953.
He became a French citizen in 1948. In 1949, he replaced Charles M?nch when he was appointed principal conductor of the Paris Conservatory Orchestra, a position he held until 1960. His contract required him to conduct half of the concerts. He conducted a famous performance of Wagner's opera Tannh?user at the Bayreuth Festival in 1955 and also worked with the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra as a guest conductor. As this indicates, Cluytens was well-versed in the German repertoire, as well as delivering authoritative interpretations of Ravel and other modern French composers.
A prolific recording artist, primarily for EMI, Cluytens signed a contract with the French branch of EMI Pathé-Marconi in 1946. He set down a discography of the French masters and a complete cycle of Beethoven's symphonies, the latter with the Berlin Phiharmonic Orchestra, in 1957-1960. He also recorded many operas. A number of his recordings have been issued on CD.
His premature death at the age of 62 occurred just as he was transitioning from being known primarily as a conductor of the French classics to becoming increasingly recognized as one of the greatest conductors of the standard German/Austrian repertoire. He started during the mid 1950's to conduct Die Meistersinger von N?rnberg and other famous Wagner operas at the annual Bayreuth Festivals, an extraordinary honor at that time, for a conductor who didn't come from Germany or Austria, to lead Wagner at the world's Wagner epicenter, the Holy Grail for all German and Austrian conductors. Also during the late '50s, the dominant impresario of classical-music recording, Walter Legge of EMI, commissioned Cluytens to record all nine Beethoven symphonies with the Berlin Philharmonic. This was a special mark of Cluytens's rising reputation in the Germanic repertoire, because that orchestra was widely considered, along with the Vienna Philharmonic, to be one of the two finest in the world, especially in performing the Austro/German literatures. Legge, at that same time, commissioned complete Beethoven symphony recordings from Herbert von Karajan, and also from Otto Klemperer, both of whom were already widely acclaimed Austro-German maestros, and both of whom recorded the nine Beethoven symphonies with the Philharmonia of London. For Legge to place Cluytens in the same august Beethoven sphere as Klemperer and Karajan, and to give Cluytens the Berlin Philharmonic no less to do it, expressed EMI's absolute commitment that Cluytens was unsurpassed on Beethoven.
 
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Debussy
Claude Debussy - 德布西 - 1862-1918
Claude Debussy youtube克勞德•德布西 維基百科Claude Debussy wikipedia德布西 googleClaude Debussy google
法國作曲家。出身貧寒家庭,九歲就顯示出鋼琴方面的才能,1873年入巴黎音樂學院學習鋼琴與作曲,不久即受聘為俄國女富豪梅克夫人(Nadezhda von Meck)的鋼琴師。受文學和美術中印象主義和象徵主義影響而創造了一種十分獨特的和聲與音樂結構體系。他反對傳統的配器規則,認為弦樂不必以抒情為主,木管也具有人聲一樣的豐富色彩。在他的音樂中,傳統的管弦樂器結構如印象派畫中的顏色一樣被細分開來,每種樂器幾乎成為一個龐大室內樂隊裡的獨奏者。其作品綜合了詩、樂、畫等多種藝術的因素。德布西被公認是音樂的印象主義(Impressionism)派創建者。他在削弱緊抱著調性和諧的傳統方面占有很大的意義,其地位等同於李斯特(F. Liszt)、華格納(R. Wagner)和荀白克(A. Schoenberg)。受其影響的作曲家有拉威爾(M. Ravel)、史特拉汶斯基(I. Stravinsky)、巴爾托克(Bela Bartok)、貝爾格(A. Berg)、魏本(A. Webern)和布萊(P. Boulez),他被視為近三百年來最有影響力的法國作曲家。作品包括歌劇《佩利亞斯與梅麗桑德》(Pelléas et Mélisande, 1902);管弦樂作品《牧神的午後序曲》(Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faun, 1894)、《夜曲》(Nocturnes, 1899)、《海》(La mer, 1905)、《意象》(Images, 1912)和芭蕾舞曲《嬉戲》(Jeux, 1913);一首管弦四重奏(1893);鋼琴組曲《埃斯唐皮》(Estampes, 1903)、《意象》(Images, 1905、1907)、《兒童樂園》(Children's Corner, 1908)、二十四首《前奏曲》(Préludes, 1910、1913)、十二首《練習曲》(Études, 1915),以及許多歌曲。
French composer. Born into near poverty, he showed an early gift for the piano. He entered the Paris Conservatoire in 1873, and soon thereafter was employed as pianist by Nadezhda von Meck, P. Tchaikovsky's patroness. Influenced by the Symbolist poets and Impressionist painters, he was early led toward a compositional style of great originality, shunning the strictures of traditional counterpoint and harmony to achieve new effects of great subtlety through unusual voice leading and timbral colors to evoke pictorial images and moods especially of languor and hedonism. He is regarded as the founder of musical Impressionism. His significance in weakening the hold of traditional tonal harmony equals that of F. Liszt, Richard Wagner, and A. Schoenberg. Given his effect on such composers as M. Ravel, I. Stravinsky, Bela Bartok, A. Berg, A. Webern, and P. Boulez, he can be seen as the most influential French composer of the last three centuries. His works include the opera Pelléas et Mélisande (1902); the orchestral works Prelude to The Afternoon of a Faun (1894), Nocturnes (1899), La mer (1905), Images (1912), and the ballet Jeux (1913); a string quartet (1893); the piano sets Estampes (1903), Images (1905, 1907), Children's Corner (1908), 24 Préludes (1910, 1913), and 12 Études (1915); and many songs.
 
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Delibes
Leo Delibes - 德利伯 - 1836-1891
Leo Delibes youtube利奧•德裡布 維基百科Léo Delibes wikipedia德利伯 googleLeo Delibes google
法國作曲家。曾在巴黎音樂學院就讀,後來在教堂擔任風琴師,並在巴黎歌劇院擔任伴奏和合唱長。一生作有近三十部歌劇、輕歌劇和芭蕾舞劇,還有許多合唱作品,但現今人們印象最深的作品有三部:芭蕾舞劇《葛蓓莉亞》(Coppélia, 1870)、《西爾維亞》(Sylvia, 1876),以及歌劇《拉克梅》(Lakmé, 1883)。
French composer. He studied at the Paris Conservatoire and worked as a church organist and as accompanist and chorus master at the Paris Opera. Though he composed almost 30 operas, operettas, and ballets, as well as many choral pieces, he is remembered today for three works: the ballets Coppélia (1870) and Sylvia (1876) and the opera Lakmé (1883).
 
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Dukas
Paul Dukas - 保羅•杜卡斯 - 1865-1935
Paul Dukas youtube保羅•杜卡斯 維基百科Paul Dukas wikipedia保羅•杜卡斯 googlePaul Dukas google
法國作曲家。出生於音樂世家,曾在巴黎音樂學院學習。因創作了《波利猶特》的前奏曲(1892年首演),在年輕作曲家中奠定地位。由於對自己的作品審視甚嚴,所以作品不多。他的聲名主要來自單純一首管弦樂作品《魔法師的門徒》(1897);其他作品還有歌劇《阿麗安與藍鬍子》(1907)、芭蕾舞劇《仙女》(1912)和《C大調交響曲》(1896)。
French composer. Born into a musical family, he studied at the Paris Conservatoire. His first success was the overture Polyeucte (1892). Perfectionism led him to destroy much of his work. His fame rests almost entirely on the tone poem The Sorceror's Apprentice (1897); his other surviving works include the opera Ariane et Barbe-bleue (1906), the ballet La péri (1912), and a symphony in C (1896).
 
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Dvorak
Antonin Dvorak - 德弗札克。德佛亞克。德弗乍克 - 1841-1904
Antonin Dvorak youtube安東尼•德弗札克 維基百科Antonín Dvořák wikipedia德弗札克 googleAntonin Dvorak google
第一位得到世界認同的波希米亞作曲家,弘揚了由史麥塔納(B. Smetana)奠下基礎的捷克音樂民族主義運動。少年時代已是一位技巧嫻熟的小提琴家,1857年他父親把他送到布拉格一所管風琴學校就讀,後在多家小酒館和劇院樂隊拉中提琴。1873年幾場成功的作品音樂會使他在布拉格聲譽鵲起,1875年獲奧地利政府國家獎金。這次獲獎使他與布拉姆斯結為親密無間的朋友,布拉姆斯不但在技術上給了他寶貴的忠告,而且幫他找到一位具影響力的出版商,出版了《摩拉維亞二重唱》(1876)和鋼琴二重奏《斯拉夫舞曲》(1878),使德弗札克以及他祖國的音樂第一次贏得全世界的注意。他曾十次訪問英國,在英國的成功成了他永遠自豪的源泉。1890年柴可夫斯基為他安排兩場音樂會,使他得以在莫斯科親嘗成功的滋味。1892年應紐約新成立的國立音樂學院之請擔任院長之職。德弗札克之所以受人喜愛,在於他出類拔萃的旋律天才及其音樂清新可愛的捷克特色,這些音樂和當時較為滯重的作品形成鮮明的對比。他的嫻熟技巧和豐富和諧的靈感,幫助他創作出大量且多姿多彩的作品。他的九首交響曲都是成熟且高質量的作品,其中《E小調第九交響曲︰新世界》(1893)是他最著名的作品;雖然人們認為它是在黑人靈歌基礎上並受到寓居美國期間的其他影響而寫成,卻帶有典型的波希米亞風格。他的四首協奏曲中,只有《B小調大提琴協奏曲》(1895)可以稱為經典之作。他的室內樂作品有時雖失之過於緊張,但也都是上乘之作。合唱曲《聖母悼歌》(1877)和《感恩讚》(1892),是同類作品中的佼佼者。歌劇也有十三部之多,卻始終是德弗札克的才華無法駕馭的唯一體裁,其中以《水澤仙女》(1900)一劇最引人矚目。德弗札克的主要缺點是喜歡東拉西扯,翻來覆去,間或趣味不夠高雅,大型作品構思不夠嚴密。但是,同他無比豐富的旋律和為達目的而採用的單純質樸手法相比,這類缺點實在無傷大雅。
Bohemian (Czech) composer. Son of a rural innkeeper and butcher, he was permitted to attend organ school in Prague in 1857. He played viola in a theater orchestra, often under B. Smetana, and eventually found employment that left him ample time for composition. J. Brahms assisted in getting his works published, and by 1880 his fame had spread throughout Europe. He made 10 visits to England, and served as director of New York's new National Conservatory of Music 1892-95, which resulted in his “New World” Symphony (1893). His music, which frequently draws on folk tunes, is seen as an expression of Czech nationalism. Highly prolific, he is primarily known for his orchestral and chamber works; his works include nine symphonies, concertos for piano, violin, and cello, two serenades, several tone poems, 14 string quartets, two piano quartets, and two piano quintets. His many piano works include the four-hand Slavonic Dances (1878, 1886). His sacred music includes a Stabat Mater (1877), a Requiem (1890), and a Te Deum (1892). Of his 13 operas, only Rusalka (1900) is still performed.
 
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Elgar
Edward Elgar。艾爾加。1857-1934
Edward Elgar youtube愛德華•埃爾加 維基百科Edward Elgar wikipedia艾爾加 googleEdward Elgar google
受封為艾德華爵士(Sir Edward)。英國作曲家。父親是鋼琴調音師,他便精通小提琴和管風琴。早期作品經常被人演奏,逐漸建立起名聲。管弦樂變奏曲《謎》(Enigma Variations, 1899)為他帶來聲譽,後來成為全國知名人物,被認為是20世紀英國音樂復興(English musical renaissance)的先驅者,自韓德爾(G. F. Handel)死後英國作曲界經過一段長期的黯淡時代開始振興。其主要作品包括:五首《威儀堂堂進行曲》(Pomp and Circumstance Marches, 1901-1907),兩首交響曲(1908,1911),小提琴協奏曲(1910),大提琴協奏曲(1919),神劇(oratorio)《吉倫舍斯之夢》(The Dream of Gerontius, 1900),交響詩(tone poem)《安樂鄉》(Cockaigne, 1901)及《福爾斯塔夫》(Falstaff, 1913)。
British composer. Son of a piano tuner, he became proficient on violin and organ. His early works succeeded in getting performed, and his reputation grew steadily. His Enigma Variations (1899) brought him fame, and for the rest of his life he was a great national figure, regarded as having inaugurated the “English musical renaissance,” a revival of British composition after the long lackluster era since G.F. Handel's death. His principal works include the five Pomp and Circumstance Marches (1901-7), two symphonies (1908, 1911), concertos for violin (1910) and cello (1919), the oratorio The Dream of Gerontius (1900), and the tone poems Cockaigne (1901), and Falstaff (1913).
 
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Falla
Manuel de Falla - 法雅 - 1876-1946
Manuel de Falla youtube曼努爾•德•法雅 維基百科Manuel de Falla wikipedia法雅 googleManuel de Falla google
西班牙作曲家。曾隨佩德雷爾學作曲,表現出一種強而有力的音樂民族主義風格。第一個主要作品是歌劇《短暫的人生》(1905)。1907-1914年在巴黎生活,結識了德布西和拉威爾等音樂家。1915年寫出節奏強烈的西班牙芭蕾舞劇《愛情魔法師》,使他的名聲更為響亮。1938年左右因西班牙內戰而遠赴阿根廷,從此一去不回。其他作品包括《西班牙庭園之夜》(1916)組曲、《三角帽》(1919)、木偶歌劇《彼德羅先生的木偶劇》(1923)、《大鍵琴協奏曲》(1926),以及一部未完成的神劇。大家公認他是近幾個世紀以來西班牙最偉大的作曲家。
Spanish composer. He studied with F. Pedrell, and conceived a powerful musical nationalism. His first major work was the opera La vida breve (1905). He lived in Paris 1907-14, where he imbibed the music of C. Debussy, M. Ravel, and others. The intensely Spanish ballet El amor brujo (1915) gained him further acclaim. The Spanish Civil War caused him to leave Spain for Argentina c. 1938, and he never returned. His other works include Nights in the Gardens of Spain (1915), The Three-Cornered Hat (1919), the puppet opera El retablo de maese Pedro (1923; with Federico Garcia Lorca), a harpsichord concerto (1926), and the huge unfinished oratorio L'Atlántida. He is regarded as the greatest Spanish composer of recent centuries.
 
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Faure
Gabriel Faure - 佛瑞 - 1845-1924
Gabriel Faure youtube加布里埃爾•佛瑞 維基百科Gabriel Fauré wikipedia佛瑞 googleGabriel Faure google
法國作曲家。出生於一個小貴族家庭,九歲入巴黎音樂學校,隨聖桑學習鋼琴,並持續了十一年。曾在聖蘇爾皮西教堂(1871-1874)和聖馬德萊娜教堂(1896-1905)擔任管風琴師,頗負聲望。1896年任巴黎音樂學院作曲教授。他的學生中有拉威爾(M. Ravel)和布朗熱(N. Boulanger)等。1905年任該院院長,直至1920年。佛瑞不僅擅長歌曲,還創作各種形式的室內樂。他曾為幾齣戲劇配過音樂,其中包括《普羅米修斯》(1900)、《培涅羅普》(1913)以及《舞台娛樂戲劇》(1919)。此外,寫了許多風格獨特、精巧、細膩的鋼琴曲,其中十三首夜曲、十三首船歌和五首即興曲最為著名。他雖然極尊重傳統的音樂形式,但喜歡在自己創作的作品中,注入一些個人的特點,即大膽的和聲與非常樸素的創造性結合在一起。這種不引人注意的變革為現代法國音樂學派作更大的創新開闢了道路。
French composer. Born into the minor aristocracy, he enrolled at age 9 in a Paris music school, where he studied with C. Saint-Saens and remained 11 years. He held the prestigious organist positions at the churches of St. Sulpice (1871-74) and the Madeleine (1896-1905). In 1896 he also became professor of composition at the Paris Conservatoire, where he taught such students as M. Ravel and N. Boulanger. He served as its director 1905-20. In 1909 he accepted the presidency of the Société Musicale Indépendante, a group of dissident young composers. His works include the operas Prométhée (1900), Pénélope (1913), and Masques et bergamasques (1919), the orchestral suite Pelléas et Mélisande (1898), two piano quartets (1879, 1886), numerous piano Nocturnes and Barcarolles, a famous Requiem (1900), and many beautiful songs.
 
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Fiedler
Arthur Fiedler - 費德勒 - 1894-1979
Arthur Fiedler youtube暫缺 維基百科Arthur Fiedler wikipedia費德勒 googleArthur Fiedler google
美國指揮家。在柏林學習後於1915年加入波士頓交響樂團。1920年代指揮自組的小型樂團及不同的合唱團並灌錄唱片,1929年組織波士頓廣場露天音樂會。1930年起任波士頓大眾交響樂團指揮,享有盛名。
U.S. conductor. Born in Boston, son of a distinguished violinist, he was trained in Berlin and joined the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 1915. In the 1920s he began conducting and recording with his own Boston Sinfonietta and various choral groups. In 1929 he organized a series of open-air concerts, which was successful enough to eventually become an institution, the Boston Pops. Thereafter his name was inextricably linked with the Pops, which achieved enormous success under him.
 
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Franck
Cesar Franck - 法朗克。弗蘭克 - 1822-1890
Cesar Franck youtube塞扎爾•弗蘭克 維基百科Cèsar Franck wikipedia法朗克 googleCesar Franck google
比利時裔法籍作曲家。鋼琴天才。十四歲時去巴黎在巴黎音樂院學習。1858年擔任聖克羅蒂特教堂管風琴師。他在此地度過餘生。1872年任巴黎音樂院管風琴教授。他的作品極其嚴肅,受德國影響以及追求宗教音樂,包括著名的《D小調交響曲》(1888);交響詩《埃奧利德》(1876)、《可惡的獵人》(1882)和《普西才》(1888);神劇《八福》(1879);室內樂包括鋼琴五重奏(1879)、小提琴奏鳴曲(1886)和弦樂四重奏(1889)以及許多管風琴和鋼琴作品。
Belgian-French composer. A piano prodigy, he arrived in Paris at 14 to study at the Paris Conservatoire. In 1858 he became organist at the large church of Ste. Clotilde, where he would remain the rest of his life. In 1872 he also became professor of organ at the Conservatoire. His compositions, which tend to be serious, German-influenced, and often religious, include the famous Symphony in D (1888); the tone poems Les Éolides (1876), Le chasseur maudit (1882), and Psyché (1888); the oratorio Les béatitudes (1879); chamber works including a piano quintet (1879), a violin sonata (1886), and a string quartet (1889); and many works for organ and piano.
 
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Furtwängler
Wilhelm Furtwängler - 福特萬格勒 - 1886-1954
Wilhelm Furtwängler youtube威爾海姆•福特萬格勒 維基百科Wilhelm Furtwängler wikipedia福特萬格勒 googleWilhelm Furtwängler google
德國指揮家和作曲家。曾向藍白克(1839-1901)學習作曲。1906年首次登台指揮。他修訂《讚美頌》(1910),從而確立了作曲家的地位。1917年在柏林擔任客座指揮期間,為他贏得了「福特萬格勒奇蹟」稱號。繼史特勞斯任柏林歌劇院管弦樂團指揮。1922年接替倪基希(1855-1922)而擔任萊比錫布商大廈管弦樂團指揮。其他職位包括柏林愛樂管弦樂團指揮和維也納愛樂等樂團指揮。因納粹執政時期留在德國受到斥責。納粹政權中沒有他的朋友。留在德國期間,繼續演奏現代樂曲,並幫助猶太音樂家逃亡。福特萬格勒捲入1944年暗殺希特勒的陰謀。
German conductor and composer. After private composition studies with Joseph Rheinberger (1839-1901), he debuted in 1906. His revised Te Deum (1910) established him as a composer, and in 1917 a guest-conducting job in Berlin earned the phrase “Furtw?ngler miracle.” He succeeded R. Strauss at the Berlin State Opera, and Arthur Nikisch (1855-1922) at the Leipzig Gewandhaus and Berlin Philharmonic, becoming especially associated with the music of Ludwig van Beethoven and Richard Wagner. Though criticized for staying in Germany during the Nazi era, he was no friend of the regime, continuing to program modern music, helping Jewish musicians escape, and being peripherally involved in a 1944 plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler.
 
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Gershwin
George Gershwin - 蓋希文 - 1898-1937
George Gershwin youtube蓋希文 維基百科George Gershwin wikipedia蓋希文 googleGeorge Gershwin google
原名Jacob Gershvin。美國最重要、最受歡迎的作曲家之一。出身於俄國猶太移民家庭,約六歲時初次聽到爵士樂現場演出。孩提時代就有機會接觸藝術音樂的音樂會,1916年出版第一首曲子。1918年他的《斯萬尼》由歌星喬爾森演出,贏得非凡的成功。《啊呀呀露西爾》(1919)是第一齣完全由他完成的音樂劇。在懷特曼的委託下完成了他的口碑最好的作品之一《藍色狂想曲》(1924)。蓋希文的第一部成功的百老匯力作《女士,發點善心吧!》(1924),是他與其兄艾拉•蓋希文通力合作的第一部作品。此後,他們成為百老匯戲劇史中主要的歌曲創作組合之一;合作的劇目還有《腳尖》(1925)、《哦,凱!》(1926)、《樂隊奏起來》(1927;1930年修訂本)、《滑稽面孔》(1927)、《瘋狂的女孩》(1930)等。諷刺劇《我為你歌唱》(1931)是獲得普立茲戲劇獎的第一部音樂劇。蓋希文的歌曲亦用於多部電影。他最成功的大型作品是「民間歌劇」《波吉與貝絲》(1935),海沃德作歌劇劇本,並與艾拉•蓋希文合寫歌詞。他的古典音樂作品包括了一首鋼琴協奏曲(1925)、音詩《一個美國人在巴黎》(1928)。蓋希文三十八歲因腦瘤病逝。
U.S. composer. Born in East New York to Russian-Jewish immigrants, he heard jazz performed live from about age 6. He worked as a song plugger in his teens, and in 1914 he published his first song. In 1918 his “Swanee,” performed by A. Jolson, achieved extraordinary success. His first complete score was La, La Lucille (1919). Paul Whiteman commissioned from him the hugely successful orchestral work Rhapsody in Blue (1924). Gershwin's first major Broadway success, Lady, Be Good! (1924), was a collaboration with his brother Ira Gershwin. They soon established themselves as one of the great teams in Broadway history; their shows included Tip-Toes (1925), Oh, Kay! (1926), Strike Up the Band (1927), Funny Face (1927), Girl Crazy (1930), and the satire Of Thee I Sing (1931), the first musical to win a Pulitzer Prize. He also scored several successful films. His most ambitious work was the “folk opera” Porgy and Bess (1935), a collaboration with Ira and DuBose Heyward. His classical compositions include a piano concerto (1925) and the tone poem An American in Paris (1928). Gershwin died at 38 of a brain tumor.
 
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Giulini
Carlo Maria Giulini - 卡爾羅•馬里亞•朱里尼 - 1914-
Carlo Maria Giulini youtube卡爾羅•馬里亞•朱里尼 維基百科Carlo Maria Giulini wikipedia朱里尼 googleCarlo Maria Giulini google
義大利指揮家。朱利尼在羅馬聖塞西利亞音樂學院學習中提琴和作曲,在做了幾年中提琴手後,於1944年成為指揮家。在擔任史卡拉歌劇院首席指揮數年後,因為厭煩缺少彩排的時間,1967年在其國際職業生涯高峰時離開歌劇界。其所灌錄莫札特和威爾第的歌劇及合唱作品受到普遍歡迎,隨後在芝加哥(1968-1978)、維也納(1973-1976)和洛杉磯(1978-1986)等管弦樂團中擔任重要職務。
Italian conductor. He studied viola and composition at Santa Cecilia in Rome, and after several years as a violist, became a conductor in 1944. After several years at La Scala, he left opera at the peak of his international career in 1967, fed up with lack of rehearsal time. His recordings of operas and choral works by W.A. Mozart and G. Verdi became widely acclaimed, and he subsequently held important orchestral posts in Chicago (1968-78), Vienna (1973-76), and Los Angeles (1978-86).
 
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Glinka
Mikhail Glinka - 葛令卡 - 1804-1857
Mikhail Glinka youtube米哈伊爾•伊萬諾維奇•格林卡 維基百科Mikhail Glinka wikipedia葛令卡 googleMikhail Glinka google
俄國作曲家。曾在義大利和柏林學習音樂,1836年第一部歌劇《為沙皇獻生》演出後,立即為他贏得俄國重要作曲家的聲譽。歌劇《盧斯蘭與魯密拉》(1842)和弦樂作品《卡瑪林斯卡婭》(1848)將俄國民間音樂成份納入其中。他的作品對以後的作曲家,如柴可夫斯基、林姆斯基-高沙可夫有明顯影響。葛令卡被認為是俄國民族樂派的奠基人。
Russian composer. He studied in Italy and Berlin, and in 1836 his first opera, [opera]A Life for the Tsar, immediately earned him the reputation of Russia's leading composer. Elements of Russian folk music were heard even more clearly in the opera [opera]Ruslan and Ludmila (1842) and the orchestral work [musiccomp]Kamarinskaya (1848). The influence of these works on later Russian composers, including Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, was significant, and Glinka is regarded as the father of the Russian national school.
 
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Grieg
Edvard Grieg - 葛利格 - 1843-1907
Edvard Grieg youtube葛利格 維基百科Edvard Grieg wikipedia葛利格 googleEdvard Grieg google
挪威作曲家。布爾說服其雙親,送他到萊比錫學習音樂。後在哥本哈根隨加代等學習。在那裡曾受挪威民族音樂理想的影響。作為一個鋼琴家經常演奏,並常為他的太太在獨唱他的歌曲伴奏。易卜生《皮爾金》(1867)所寫的戲劇音樂,鋼琴協奏曲(1875),可能是他最受歡迎的作品。到他死時,他是全國知名人物。他仍被認為是挪威最偉大的作曲家。其他作品包括《交響舞》(1897)、《抒情組曲》(1904),一百五十首以上的歌曲以及許多鋼琴作品,包括《六十六首抒情曲集》(1867-1901)和《自霍爾堡的時間》(1884)。
Norwegian composer. His parents were persuaded by Ole Bull to send him to Leipzig for music study, and he later studied with Niels Gade and others in Copenhagen, where he became inspired with the ideal of a Norwegian national music. He frequently performed as a pianist, and often accompanied his wife in recitals of his songs. His incidental music to Henrik Ibsen's Peer Gynt (1875), which the playwright invited him to write, became, with his piano concerto (1868), perhaps his most popular work. By the end of his life he was a national institution, and he is still regarded as Norway's greatest composer. His other works include Symphonic Dances (1897), Lyric Suite (1904), over 150 songs, and many works for piano, including 66 Lyric Pieces (1867-1901) and From Holberg's Time (1884).
 
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Haitink
Bernard Haitink - 海汀克 - 1929-
Bernard Haitink youtube伯納德•海廷克 維基百科Bernard Haitink wikipedia海汀克 googleBernard Haitink google
荷蘭指揮。原是小提琴家,1956年首次與阿姆斯特丹皇家音樂廳交響樂團聯合演出。1961-1988年為該樂團常任指揮,留下大量的錄音遺產。由於負責領導格林德包恩藝術節(1978-1988)和柯芬園皇家歌劇院(自1988年起),使他的歌劇事業亦受到注目。
Dutch conductor. Originally a violinist, he first performed with the Concertgebouw Orchestra in 1956. From 1961 to 1988 he was its permanent conductor, and he left a wide-ranging recorded legacy. He has also had a noteworthy opera career as head of the Glyndebourne (1978-88) and Covent Garden (from 1988) operas.
 
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Jochum
Eugen Jochum - 約夫姆 - 1902-1987
Eugen Jochum youtube歐根•約胡姆 維基百科Eugen Jochum wikipedia約夫姆 googleEugen Jochum google
歐根·約胡姆(Eugen Jochum,1902年11月1日-1987年3月26日),又譯約夫姆,生於巴本豪森,逝於慕尼黑,是德國指揮家。
1932年他成為柏林廣播交響樂團指揮。1949年-1960年他是巴伐利亞廣播交響樂團指揮,並把樂團提升到德國一流樂團行列。之後他就到了阿姆斯特丹領導音樂會堂樂團。1975年受聘到倫敦交響樂團。
歐根·約胡姆是20世紀一位大指揮家,特別是他對布魯克納獨到的詮釋。他是第一位錄製了布魯克納交響曲全集的指揮家,而且分別在DG和EMI各留下了一套。
約胡姆還在拜魯伊特音樂節上指揮過華格納的作品,在錄音室里則與多明戈合作,留下《紐倫堡的名歌手》一套。
Eugen Jochum (November 1, 1902 – March 26, 1987) was an eminent German conductor.
Born in Babenhausen, near Augsburg, Germany, Jochum studied the piano and organ in Augsburg until 1922. He then studied conducting in Munich. His first post was as a rehearsal pianist at M?nchen-Gladbach, and then in Kiel.
He made his conducting debut with the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra in 1926 in a program which included Bruckner's Seventh Symphony. In the same year he was appointed conductor at Kiel, where he conducted seventeen operas in his first season, including The Flying Dutchman, Der Rosenkavalier and Turandot..
After Kiel he went to Mannheim, where Wilhelm Furtw?ngler praised his conducting. He turned down an offer to conduct twelve concerts with the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, believing that his repertory and experience were not yet equal to it. (He did not appear in America until 1958.) His next appointment was as music director in Duisburg, from 1930 to 1932. In 1932 he became chief of the Berlin Radio Orchestra, also conducting 16 concerts a season with the Berlin Philharmonic, and at the Deutsche Oper..
In 1934 Jochum succeeded Karl B?hm as musical director of the Hamburg State Opera and the Hamburg Philharmonic. Throughout the Nazi era, Hamburg remained, as Jochum put it, ‘reasonably liberal’, so that he was able to keep his post despite refusing to join the party. He performed music by composers such as Hindemith and Bart?k elsewhere banned by the Nazis. He served at Hamburg until 1949.. After World War II, Jochum became the first chief conductor of the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra in 1949.
Jochum was also a regular guest conductor of the Concertgebouw Orchestra, Amsterdam, and served as the orchestra's 'first conductor' (eerste dirigent) from 1941-1943, during the chief conductorship of Willem Mengelberg. From 1961 to 1963, Jochum was joint chief conductor of the Concertgebouw Orchestra alongside Bernard Haitink. He conducted frequently in London, with the London Philharmonic Orchestra and the London Symphony Orchestra. In 1975, the LSO appointed him conductor laureate.
He appeared regularly at Salzburg and, from 1953, Bayreuth, where he made his debut conducting Tristan und Isolde.
Jochum is best known for his interpretations of Anton Bruckner. His performances of Bach, Beethoven, Brahms, Mozart, Haydn, Schumann, Wagner and Carl Orff are also notable. His recording of Carmina Burana is considered by some to be an authoritative interpretation, as Orff himself was present at the recording and endorsed the final record.
He was a regular recording artist, from his first records in 1932 (the Mozart D minor piano concerto with Edwin Fischer). In the stereo LP era he recorded mainly for Deutsche Grammophon. His DG Bruckner cycle has remained in the catalogues ever since its first issue in the 1960s. He later recorded another complete cycle for EMI with the Dresden Staatskapelle.
Jochum’s younger brother Georg Ludwig Jochum was also a conductor. His daughter Veronica Jochum is a pianist on the faculty of the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Jochum died in Munich, Germany at the age of 84. His wife Maria predeceased him, in 1985.
 
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Handel
Georg Friedrich Handel - 韓德爾 - 1685-1759
Georg Friedrich Handel youtube格奧爾格•弗里德里希•韓德爾 維基百科George Frideric Handel wikipedia韓德爾 googleGeorge Frideric Handel google
德裔英國作曲家。哈雷的外科醫師家庭出身,他努力學習管風琴、小提琴和作曲。1703年移居漢堡,在凱澤(1674-1739)領導的歌劇樂團演奏,1705年在那裡創作了第一部歌劇。一位麥迪奇親王邀請他去佛羅倫斯;在那裡及羅馬期間受到樞機主教和貴族的贊助,他完成了多齣清唱劇、神劇和歌劇。漢諾威選侯請他任宮廷樂長(1710),他要求在出任該職之前准許他前往倫敦訪問。他的歌劇《里納爾多》很快的在倫敦完成(1711);此後,他一直留在英國,未再回到漢諾威。1714年德國選侯成為英國的喬治一世;二人間的誤會冰釋,國王是他的贊助人,他成為英國最著名的歌劇作曲家。韓德爾出任新成立的皇家音樂學會的音樂總監,這是一家歌劇院,原本生意興隆直到大眾對義大利歌劇的興趣減低為止。1732年他改編後的神劇《以斯帖》公開演出,這是首齣在英國演出的神劇。其後又演出許多成功的英語神劇,包括了他最偉大的創作《彌賽亞》(1741)。漢德爾也是世界著名的管風琴和大鍵琴演奏家。他去世後,聲譽大幅度提高,並支配著英國音樂達一個世紀以上。他的作品有︰近四十五部義大利歌劇,包括了《朱利奧•凱撒》(1723)、《奧蘭多》(1733)和《阿爾其納》(1735);神劇包括了《以色列人在埃及》(1739)、《掃羅》(1739)和《耶弗他》(1752);教堂音樂包括了《錢多斯讚美歌》(1718)和《喬治二世加冕讚美歌》(1718);他的管弦樂作品有著名的《水上音樂》(1717)和《皇家火焰音樂》(1749),第三號《大協奏曲六首》第六號《大協奏曲十二首》十七首管風琴協奏曲
German-British composer. Born to a barber-surgeon in Halle, he had to struggle to study organ, violin, and composition. Moving to Hamburg in 1703, he played in the opera orchestra under Reinhard Keiser (1674-1739), and his first opera was produced there in 1705. A Medici prince invited him to Florence; there and in Rome, patronized by cardinals and nobility, he wrote oratorios, cantatas, and more operas. Hired as kapellmeister by the elector at Hanover (1710), he asked permission to visit London before assuming his responsibilities. There his opera Rinaldo (1711) immediately made his name; forsaking Hanover, he remained in England the rest of his life. In 1714 the German elector became George I of England; any annoyance at Handel's defection dissipated, and the king became one of his patrons. Handel became musical director of the new Royal Academy of Music, an opera house, which thrived until the public taste shifted away from Italian opera. In 1732 he revised his oratorio Esther for a public performance, the first public oratorio performance in England. Its success was followed by many more English-language oratorios, including his great Messiah (1741). Handel was renowned as virtually the greatest organist and harpsichordist in the world. His posthumous reputation grew to mammoth proportions and dominated English music for more than a century. He wrote about 45 Italian operas, including Giulio Cesare (1723), Orlando (1733), and Alcina (1735). His oratorios include Israel in Egypt (1739), Saul (1739), and Jephtha (1752). His church music includes the Chandos Anthems (1718) and Coronation Anthems (1727). His orchestral works include the famous Water Music (1717) and Royal Fireworks Music (1749), the 18 concerti grossi of Op. 3 and Op. 6, and 17 organ concertos.
 
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Haydn
Joseph Haydn - 海頓 - 1732-1809
Joseph Haydn youtube約瑟夫•海頓 維基百科Joseph Haydn wikipedia海頓 googleJoseph Haydn google
奧地利作曲家。原本想當神職人員,但在八歲時就被維也納聖史蒂芬大教堂選入唱詩班,學習演奏小提琴和鍵盤樂器。離開唱詩班後,他開始靠教學和演奏小提琴為生,同時艱苦研究對位及和聲方面的理論。後來獲得梅塔斯塔齊奧的注意,把他引薦給作曲家波爾波拉(1686-1768),他幫波爾波拉處理雜務,波爾波拉則以教他音樂來抵換。海頓開始打入上流社會,1761年成為埃斯泰爾哈吉家族大宮廷裡的音樂總監,此後一直為他們工作。在這個藝術發展較為孤立但擁有優越資源的職位上,海頓享受了自由創作實驗之樂,也不得不成為原創作曲家。到了晚年,他已是當代國際公認的偉大作曲家。他的重要作品幾乎涵蓋了所有的音樂體裁,其優雅動人心絃的作品兼具了風趣與嚴肅、通俗與創新。他是第一個偉大的交響樂作曲家,作有一百零八首交響樂,其中包括最後十二首「倫敦交響曲」(1791-1795)。他是實際發明弦樂四重奏的人,共作有六十八首弦樂四重奏,奠定了四重奏藝術的基礎。和唱作品包括十五首彌撒曲和神劇《創世記》(1798)、《四季》(1801)。他也作有四十八首鋼琴奏鳴曲,以及一百多首為類似大提琴聲的上低音號作的優美曲子。海頓是塑造古典音樂風格的重要人物,他的朋友莫札特和學生貝多芬都深受其影響。
Austrian composer. Intended for the priesthood, he was recruited at 8 to the choir at St. Stephen's Church, Vienna, where he learned violin and keyboard. On leaving the choir, he began supporting himself by teaching and playing violin, while undertaking rigorous study of counterpoint and harmony. He came to the attention of Pietro Metastasio, and through him became factotum to the composer Nicola Porpora (1686-1768) in exchange for lessons. Gaining entrée to high society, in 1761 he became head of the musical establishment at the great palace of the Esterházy family, which would support him for most of his career. In this position of artistic isolation but with excellent resources, Haydn felt free to experiment and was forced to become original. By his late years he was recognized internationally as the greatest living composer. He composed important works in almost every genre, and his elegant and ingratiating works balance wit and seriousness, custom and innovation. The first great symphonist, he composed 108 symphonies, including the popular last 12 “London symphonies” (1791-95); he virtually invented the string quartet, and his 68 quartets remain the foundation of the quartet literature. His choral works include 15 masses and the oratorios [musiccomp]The Creation (1798) and [musiccomp]The Seasons (1801). He also wrote 48 piano sonatas and more than 100 beautiful works for the cello-like baryton. The principal shaper of the Classical style, he exerted major influence on his friend Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and his student Ludwig van Beethoven.
 
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Johann Strauss II
Johann Strauss II - 約翰•史特勞斯二世。小約翰•史特勞斯 - 1825-1899
Johann Strauss II youtube小約翰•史特勞斯 維基百科Johann Strauss II wikipedia約翰•史特勞斯 googleJohann Strauss google
奧地利作曲家。他的父親老約翰•史特勞斯(1804-1849)是一個自學成材的音樂家,曾在維也納建立起一個音樂的王國。作為一名小提琴手,他從1819年起開始在一個舞蹈樂隊演奏,當該樂隊在1824年分裂為兩部分後,小史特勞斯參加了第二組,並開始譜寫華爾茲、加洛普舞(galop)、波卡舞(polka)和卡德利爾舞(quadrille),總共發表了兩百五十多部作品。作為當地樂團的指揮,他還寫了一些進行曲,包括《拉特斯基進行曲》。在他離開家後(1842),他的知名度和作曲量很快超過了父親,成為著名的「圓舞曲之王」。他後來勸服弟弟約瑟夫(1827-1870)和愛德華(1835-1916)來接替他的指揮職務,因此贏得了更多的創作時間,譜寫他最著名的交響華爾茲,包括《藍色多瑙河》(1867)和《維也納森林的故事》(1868)。小歌劇有廣受歡迎的《蝙蝠》(1874)和《吉普賽男爵》(1885)。愛德華的兒子約拿(1866-1939)也曾在柏林擔任指揮和作曲,是這個音樂家族最後一名成員。
Austrian composer. His father, Johann Strauss, Sr. (1804-1849), was a self-taught musician who established a musical dynasty in Vienna. A violinist, he played in a dance orchestra from 1819; when it split in two (1824), he took over the second group, for which he began to write waltzes, galops, polkas, and quadrilles, eventually publishing more than 250 works. As bandmaster of a local regiment, he also wrote marches, including the Radetsky-March. After he left his family (1842), Johann Jr. soon surpassed his father's popularity and productivity, becoming known as the “Waltz King.” By inducing his brothers, Josef (1827-1870) and Eduard (1835-1916), to take over his conducting duties, he gained more time to compose the symphonic waltzes for which he is best known, including The Beautiful Blue Danube (1867) and Tales from the Vienna Woods (1868). His operettas include the popular Die Fledermaus (1874) and The Gypsy Baron (1885). Eduard's son Johann (1866-1939), a conductor and composer in Berlin, was the last of the dynasty.
 
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Karajan
Herbert von Karajan - 卡拉揚 - 1908-1989
Karajan youtube赫伯特•馮•卡拉揚 維基百科Herbert von Karajan wikipedia卡拉揚 googleKarajan google
奧地利指揮家。出生於薩爾斯堡,先在莫札特音樂學院學習,然後到維也納繼續深造。他是一位鋼琴奇才,1929年在烏爾姆第一次任指揮。1933年加入納粹黨,在第三帝國中他的聲譽日隆。第二次世界大戰後,原本不再讓他擔任指揮,但到了1947年他開始與維也納愛樂樂團一起錄製唱片,先後共錄製了大約八百張唱片。由於他在納粹時代的活動而在1955年於美國首演時引起了極大的爭議。同年他繼福特萬格勒之後擔任柏林愛樂樂團的總監。從1964年起任薩爾斯堡音樂節的首席指揮直到去世。
Austrian conductor. Born in Salzburg, he attended its Mozarteum, then continued his studies in Vienna. A prodigious pianist, he took his first conducting post in Ulm in 1929. In 1933 he joined the Nazi Party, and under the Third Reich his reputation grew swiftly. After World War II he initially was not allowed to conduct, but in 1947 he began recording with the Vienna Philharmonic, the start of a legacy of some 800 recordings. His U.S. debut in 1955 was attended by controversy over his Nazi-era activities. That same year he became W. Furtwangler's successor at the Berlin Philharmonic, and he headed the Salzburg Festival from 1964 until his death.
 
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Kempe
Rudolf Kempe - 魯道夫•肯普 - 1910-1976
Rudolf Kempe youtube魯道夫•肯普 維基百科Rudolf Kempe wikipedia魯道夫•肯普 googleRudolf Kempe google
魯道夫•肯普(1910年6月14日-1976年5月12日)是一位德國指揮家。
生於德勒斯登,他也在自己的出生地學習了音樂。在他走上指揮崗位前,他在幾個樂團裡面演奏雙簧管,1935年他在萊比錫歌劇院擔任指揮。 1949年到1952年間他指導德勒斯登國立樂團,之後的1952年到1954年則在慕尼黑繼喬治·索爾蒂之後擔任巴伐利亞國家歌劇院指揮。1960年他首次在拜魯伊特登台。從1961年到1975年他是皇家愛樂樂團的指揮,從1967年起直至其逝世他一直在慕尼黑愛樂樂團任職。在生命的最後歲月里,他和BBC交響樂團合作緊密。肯普逝世于蘇黎世。
他最擅長演繹的是理查·施特勞斯(他錄製了全集作品)和理查·華格納的作品。
Kempe was born in Dresden, where from the age of fourteen he studied at the Dresden State Opera School. He played oboe in the opera orchestra at Dortmund and then in the Leipzig Gewandhaus orchestra, from 1929. In addition to oboe, he played the piano regularly, as a soloist, in chamber music or accompanying, as a result of which, in 1933, the new Director of the Leipzig Opera invited Kempe to become a répétiteur, and later a conductor, for the opera.
During the Second World War Kempe was conscripted into the army, but instead of active service was directed into musical activities, playing for the troops and later taking over the chief conductorship of the Chemnitz opera house.
 
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Kubelìk
Rafael Kubelìk - 庫貝力克 - 1914-1996
Rafael Kubelìk youtube拉法埃爾•庫貝里克 維基百科Rafael Kubelìk wikipedia庫貝力克 googleRafael Kubelìk google
拉法埃爾•庫貝里克(Rafael Jeroným Kubelìk,1914年6月29日-1996年8月11日)捷克指揮家,作曲家。
他的父親是小提琴演奏家揚•庫貝里克。曾在布拉格的音樂學院就讀,1936年至1939年以及1942年至1948年間,他擔任捷克愛樂樂團的指揮。由於二戰後共產主義的發展,他離開了捷克斯洛伐克,1967年成為瑞士公民。
庫貝里克在1950年到1953年間擔任美國芝加哥交響樂團的指揮,1955年至1958年間,擔任英國皇家歌劇院的音樂總監,1961年至1979年擔任巴伐利亞廣播交響樂團的音樂總監,1972年至1974年間擔任紐約大都會歌劇院樂團的音樂總監。
另外,他創作了5部歌劇,一些交響樂和室內樂作品。庫貝里克于1996年去世,葬于布拉格的捷克國家墓園。
庫貝利克是詮釋捷克音樂的權威,他曾灌錄了四次斯美塔那的《我的祖國》以及德沃夏克幾乎全部管弦樂作品,還有揚那傑克的作品。他在德國唱片公司下與巴伐利亞廣播交響樂團的合作已成為樂壇上又一對絕配。
當然,庫貝利克不限於捷克音樂,他也錄了很多德國作曲家的錄音,如貝多芬交響曲,華格納的歌劇羅恩格林。
總的說來,庫貝利克的指揮比較中規中矩,沒有很狂熱的起伏,個性算不上很鮮明。可以說很照顧聽眾,讓聽眾不需要太費心去揣摩其意圖。
Kubelìk was born in Býchory, Bohemia, Austria-Hungary, today's Czech Republic. He was the sixth child of the renowned Bohemian violinist Jan Kubelìk, whom the younger Kubelìk described as "a kind of god to me." Rafael Kubelìk studied violin with his father, and later violin, composition, and conducting at the Prague Conservatory. He graduated from the conservatory in 1933, at the age of 19; at his graduation concert he played a Paganini concerto and a composition of his own for violin and orchestra. Kubelìk was also an accomplished pianist, and served as his father's piano accompanist on a tour of the United States in 1935.
 
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Lalo
Édouard Lalo - 拉羅 - 1823-1892
Édouard Lalo youtube愛德華•拉羅 維基百科Édouard Lalo wikipedia拉羅 googleÉdouard Lalo google
西班亞裔之法國作曲家。法國作曲家愛德華•拉羅的父母都是西班牙人,移居法國很久。拉羅從小就被訓練要成為一個小提琴家。他很早就在弦樂四重奏中工作。拉羅不到十五歲時,就是個有名的作曲家,最有名的作品是《西班牙交響曲》,1875年時由薩拉薩特在巴黎首演。他還有三部歌劇作品,以《伊斯王》最有名,其他作品還有芭蕾舞劇《納莫納》。
Édouard Lalo was born in Lille (Nord), in northernmost France. He attended that city's music conservatory in his youth. Then, beginning at age 16, he studied at the Paris Conservatoire under Berlioz's old enemy Fran?ois Antoine Habeneck. For several years, he worked as a string player and teacher in Paris. He joined with friends to found of the Armingaud Quartet, playing viola and second violin. His earliest surviving compositions are songs and chamber works. (Two early symphonies were destroyed.) Julie Besnier de Maligny, a contralto from Brittany, became his bride in 1865. She aroused Lalo's early interest in opera and led him to compose works for the stage. Unfortunately, they were deemed too progressive and Wagnerian and were not initially well received despite their freshness and originality. This led him to dedicate most of his career to the composition of chamber music, which was in vogue, and to writing works for orchestra.
Although Lalo is not one of the most immediately recognized names in French music, his distinctive style has earned him some degree of popularity. Symphonie espagnole for violin and orchestra still enjoys a prominent place in violinists' repertoire, and is known in many classical circles simply as "The Lalo". Lalo is also known for concertos, including his Cello Concerto in D minor. The same Breton legend that inspired "Le roi d'Ys", went on to spark the creation of his Symphony in G Minor and chamber works. Lalo's style is notable for strong melodies and colourful orchestration, with a rather Germanic solidity that sets him apart from most of his compatriots. This distinctive style and strong expressive bent can be seen even in such compactly constructed works as the Scherzo in D minor, one of Lalo's most colorful compositions.
Lalo did not gain fame as a composer until his late forties. "Le roi d'Ys" ("The King of Ys"), an opera based on a Breton legend (see: "Ys"), is his most accomplished and complex work. (The same legend stimulated Debussy to compose his famous piano piece, La Cath?drale engloutie.) The opera was rejected for 10 years after composition and was not performed until 1888, when he was 65 years old. Its success opened doors for Lalo to the end of his life. However, his imagination and the desire to compose new music were diminishing. He died in Paris at age 69, leaving several unfinished works.
Lalo's son Pierre Lalo (6 September 1866 - 9 June 1943) was a music critic who wrote for Le Temps and other French periodicals from 1898 until his death.
 
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Liszt
Franz Liszt - 李斯特 - 1811-1886
Franz Liszt youtube法蘭茲•李斯特 維基百科Franz Liszt wikipedia李斯特 googleFranz Liszt google
原名Franciscus Liszt。匈牙利出生的法國作曲家和鋼琴家。其父信仰虔誠,所以他的名字取自聖方濟(St. Francis),李斯特也承襲了父親的音樂天分和性格特質。車爾尼在他八歲時看出了他具有音樂天分,李斯特於是跟隨車爾尼和薩利耶里在維也納學習音樂,並在1822年首次登台表演。1823年在巴黎舉辦一次成功的音樂會後,他開始巡迴歐洲表演,但他的父親不幸早逝(1828),加上一場災難式的愛情事件令他想放棄音樂生涯去當神父。1832年第一次聆聽到帕格尼尼的演奏,鼓舞了他把演奏技巧發展至最高境界,並首度創作了第一批成熟的作品,即《超技練習曲》(1837)和《帕格尼尼練習曲》(1839)。後來和阿古伯爵夫人陷入愛河,生下一女,名為科西瑪(1837-1930),她後來和父親的好友華格納結婚。1840年代是「李斯特狂」(Lisztomania)的顛峰時期,聽眾對他高超的演奏技巧和華麗的風格空前著迷,結果因他到處巡迴表演而與伯爵夫人關係破裂。李斯特自視為未來的使者,在1840年代晚期停止了音樂演奏而專心作曲,並進一步影響了革新派作曲家的作品。1850年代,他寫了許多最具野心的作品,包括《浮士德交響曲》(1854)和《B小調鋼琴奏鳴曲》(1852-1853)。1865年他放棄了與賽因-維根斯坦公主成婚的希望,接受教會次級的神職職位。後期的作品十分出色,對20世紀音樂的許多發展影響很大。
Hungarian-French composer and pianist. His devout father named him for St. Francis, and Liszt inherited his father's musical and spiritual sides. Karl Czerny recognized Liszt's talent at age 8, and Liszt studied with Czerny and A. Salieri in Vienna, making his debut there in 1822. After an 1823 Paris success, he toured Europe, but his father's early death (1828) and a disastrous love affair led to a desire to give up music for the priesthood. Hearing N. Paganini in 1832, he was inspired to develop his technique to the utmost and compose his first mature pieces, including the Transcendental Études (1837) and Paganini Études (1839). An affair with Countess Marie d'Agoult resulted in the birth of his daughter, Cosima (1837-1930), who would marry his friend Richard Wagner. Liszt's touring led to their breakup, for the 1840s were the height of “Lisztomania,” the unprecedented frenzy of his audiences sparked by his blazing technique and dashing style. Seeing himself as a messenger of the future, he ceased concertizing in the late 1840s to devote himself to composition and furthering the work of progressive composers. In the 1850s he wrote many of his most ambitious works, including A Faust Symphony (1854) and the piano sonata in B minor (1853). In 1865, abandoning hope that Princess Caroline de Sayn-Wittgenstein would marry him, he took minor church orders. His later output is remarkable in anticipating many 20th-century developments.
 
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Maazel
Lorin Maazel - 馬塞爾 - 1930-
Lorin Maazel youtube洛林•馬澤爾 維基百科Lorin Maazel wikipedia馬塞爾 googleLorin Maazel google
洛林·馬澤爾洛林·馬澤爾(1930年3月6日- ),指揮家,小提琴家,作曲家。
馬澤爾出生在法國,他的父母是美國人並且在美國被撫養大。他第一次於不到10歲時登台指揮,並於15歲時第一次小提琴演出。後來他在匹茲堡大學學習。1965年-1971年,它是柏林德意志歌劇院(Deutsche Oper Berlin)的指揮,1965年-1975年,柏林廣播交響樂團(Berlin Radio Symphony Orchestra);1972年-1982年,克里夫蘭樂團(Cleveland Orchestra);1982年-1984年,維也納國家歌劇院(Vienna State Opera);1988年-1996年,匹茲堡交響樂團(Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra);1993年-2002年,巴伐利亞廣播交響樂團(Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra);2002年,他接任了Kurt Masur作為紐約愛樂樂團(New York Philharmonic Orchestra)音樂總監的職務。曾多次指揮維也納新年音樂會。
Maazel was born to Jewish-American parents in Neuilly-sur-Seine in France and brought up in the United States. Raised by a musical family (his grandfather Isaac was a violinist in the Met Orchestra), Maazel was a prodigy, taking his first conducting lesson at age seven and making his debut at age eight. At the age of eleven, he guest conducted the NBC Symphony Orchestra on the radio. At twelve he toured America to conduct major orchestras. He made his violin debut at the age of fifteen. He later studied at the University of Pittsburgh.
In 1960 he became the first American to conduct at Bayreuth. He was conductor of the Deutsche Oper Berlin from 1965 to 1971 and the Berlin Radio Symphony Orchestra from 1965 to 1975.
In 1972, Maazel began his tenure as music director at the Cleveland Orchestra, succeeding George Szell. Maazel's emotional, rich interpretation of music greatly differed from Szell's characteristic crisp, defined precision in performance. One of his most notable recordings during this time was the first complete recording of George Gershwin's Porgy and Bess, using an all African-American cast (except for the chorus). He held the post until 1982. He has not conducted the Cleveland Orchestra since his departure, although Maazel cancelled a scheduled return engagement in 2006 because of illness.
Maazel then served at the Vienna State Opera from 1982 to 1984 as general manager and chief conductor. From 1984-1988, he was the music consultant to the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, and its music director from 1988 to 1996. From 1993-2002, he was chief conductor of the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra in Munich.
He has conducted the music for three operatic films - Don Giovanni (1979), Carmen (1984), and Otello (1986).
In 2000, Maazel made a guest-conducting appearance with the New York Philharmonic in two weeks of subscription concerts after an absence of over twenty years, which met with positive reaction from the orchestra musicians. This engagement led to his appointment in January 2001 as the orchestra's next music director, starting in 2002, succeeding Kurt Masur. He is scheduled to relinquish this position with the New York Philharmonic in 2009 to Alan Gilbert.
In 2002, he conducted in Sentimento an Andrea Bocelli album that later became one of the most successful classical albums of all time.
In 2004, Maazel became the music director of the Arturo Toscanini Philharmonic. In March 2006, Maazel toured Asia with violinist Lidia Baich, conducting orchestras such as the Singapore Symphony Orchestra and NSO of Taiwan. Since September 2006 Maestro Maazel has been the musical director of the orchestra of the opera house of the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ci?ncies (City of Arts and Sciences), Valencia, Spain.
Maazel conducted the New York Philharmonic on their landmark visit to Pyongyang, North Korea on February 26, 2008. He led the orchestra in renditions of the North Korean and United States national anthems, Dvorak's New World Symphony, George Gershwin's An American in Paris, and closed with the traditional Korean folk song "Arirang".
Maazel has also composed an opera, 1984, based on the George Orwell novel Nineteen Eighty-Four.
Maazel has been married three times. His first two marriages, to pianists Miriam Sandbank and Israela Margalit, ended in divorce. His third wife is the German actress Dietlinde Turban. They have two sons and a daughter.
Lorin's father, the actor Lincoln Maazel (born February 12, 1903), co-starred in George A. Romero's horror movie Martin, and his mother, Marie Barnet Maazel, founded the Pittsburgh Youth Symphony.
Serge Prokofiev: Romeo and Juliet, the complete ballet, with the Cleveland Orchestra (Decca)
 
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Mahler
Gustav Mahler - 馬勒 - 1860-1911
Gustav Mahler youtube古斯塔夫•馬勒 維基百科Gustav Mahler wikipedia馬勒 googleGustav Mahler google
奧匈帝國作曲家及指揮家。曾就讀於維也納音樂學校,隨艾普斯坦(J. Epstein, 1832-1926)學習鋼琴,後者曾不顧他的暴躁和傲慢鼓勵他。他在以教書維生時在自己的課本上寫出了他的第一部偉大的作品《怨歌》(1880)。1880年他決心要成為一名指揮家,雖然人們發現他專制的態度很難接受,評論家們仍然認為他的作品登峰造極。1886年在布拉格取得了成功。1888-1908年開始創作他的十部交響曲,成為其創作生涯中的傳奇。1897年成為維也納劇院的指揮,他那段風雷激蕩的指揮時期,被認為是藝術家的成功。1908年轉到大都會劇院,1909-1910年任紐約交響樂團指揮。因患心臟病和哀悼女兒的去世,寫下了他的大師級作品《大地之歌》(1908-1909)和他的第九交響曲。他的管弦樂《少年魔角》(1892-1898)和《孩子們的死亡之歌》(1904)經常被人們演奏。他那充滿強烈情感且細緻的管弦樂曲,在數十年後被廣泛接受。
Austro-Hungarian composer and conductor. Born in Bohemia, he attended the Vienna Conservatory, studying piano with Julius Epstein (1832-1926), who encouraged him despite his temperament and arrogance. He wrote his first large work, Das klagende Lied (1880), on his own text, as he was eking out an existence by giving lessons. In 1880 he decided to become a conductor, and though his dictatorial manner put people off and critics found his interpretations extreme, by 1886 he had achieved success in Prague. He also began the first of his ten symphonies (1888-1910), his main compositional legacy. In 1897 he was named director of the Vienna Opera; his stormy reign there was acknowledged as an artistic success. He moved to the Metropolitan Opera in 1908 and the New York Philharmonic in 1909-10. Ill with heart disease and mourning his daughter's death, he wrote the masterly orchestral song cycle Das Lied von der Erde (1908-9) and his ninth symphony. His orchestral songs Des Knaben Wunderhorn (1892-98) and Kindertotenlieder (1904) are frequently performed. His emotionally charged and subtly orchestrated music waited decades to be widely accepted.
 
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Malotte
圖片待補
Albert Hay Malotte。馬洛提。出生年月日
Albert Hay Malotte youtube馬洛提 維基百科Albert Hay Malotte wikipedia馬洛提 googleAlbert Hay Malotte google
中文內容暫缺
Malotte was the son of Charles and Katherine (Donavon) Malotte. He was in Boy Scouts of America Troop 1, the first Boy Scout troop in Philadelphia.[1] Malotte graduated from Tioga High School and sang at Saint James Episcopal Church in Philadelphia as a choir boy. He studied with Victor Herbert, W. S. Stansfield, and later in Paris with Gordon Jacob. His career as an organist began in Chicago where he played for silent pictures and later concertized throughout the US and Europe.
During World War II he held the rank of Captain in the Special Services for two years while he toured with the USO and entertained troops in New Guinea, Australia and Europe. At one point he sponsored his own troup of entertainers that included Judith Anderson, Ann Triola and Helen McClure Preister. Malotte was an amateur pilot, avid golfer and even boxed with Jack Dempsey in Memphis, Tennessee. He spent most of his career as a composer in Hollywood.
Malotte married Marguerite Stevens Hester August 23, 1946.
Malotte composed a number of film scores, including mostly uncredited music for animations from the Disney studios. Although two movies for which he composed scores won best Short Subject Academy Awards (Ferdinand the Bull in 1939 and The Ugly Duckling in 1940), he is best remembered for a setting of the Lord's Prayer. Written in 1935, it was recorded by the baritone John Charles Thomas, and remained highly popular for use as a solo in churches and at weddings in the US for some decades. He composed a number of other religious pieces, including settings of the Beatitudes and of the Twenty-third Psalm which have also remained popular as solos. His secular songs, such as "Ferdinand the bull" (from the Disney animated short of the same name), "For my mother" (a setting of a poem by 12-year-old Bobby Sutherland) and "I am proud to be an American" are less well remembered. Some of his works are collected in the library of the University of California Los Angeles and the Library of Congress.
In addition, Malotte wrote uncredited stock music for many other films in the 1930s and early 1940s, including twenty-two of the Disney Silly Symphonies and other shorts such Little Hiawatha as well as Ferdinand the Bull. He also composed cantatas, oratorios, musicals and ballets. Malotte owned Apple Valley Music.
He died of pneumonia and is buried in the Forest Lawn, Hollywood Hills Cemetery.
 
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Matačić
Lovro von Matačić - 馬塔契奇 - 1899-1985
Lovro von Matačić youtube資料暫缺 維基百科Lovro von Matačić wikipedia馬塔契奇 googleLovro von Matačić google
資料暫缺
Lovro von Matačić (February 14, 1899, Sušak, Croatia – January 4, 1985, Belgrade, Yugoslavia), also Lovro pl. Matačić, was a Croatian conductor. He was a member of the Vienna Boys Choir and studied in Vienna before holding a variety of conducting positions in Germany and Yugoslavia. He is most associated with the music of Bruckner, though he committed quite a wide range of music to recordings, including works by Beethoven and Puccini.
During World War II, he served as a lieutenant colonel in the Croatian Home Guard and was conductor for the Independent State of Croatia's military bands. After the war he was sentenced to death by Communist Yugoslavia's government. However, his wife Lilika, who was Jewish, petitioned the Jewish-Yugoslav politician Moša Pijade who intervened and gained Matačić release after a year in imprisonment.
The Lovro pl. Matačić Lifetime Achievement Award is awarded biennally by the Croatian Association of Musical Artists.
 
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Mehta
Zubin Mehta - 梅塔 - 1936-
Zubin Mehta youtube祖賓•梅塔 維基百科Zubin Mehta wikipedia梅塔 googleZubin Mehta google
祖賓·梅塔1936年出生於印度孟買的一個音樂世家,父親梅萬·梅塔是一位出色的小提琴手、小提琴教師和指揮家、孟買交響樂團和弦樂四重奏團的創始人。祖賓·梅塔7歲時就受到了正規的小提琴和鋼琴教育,所以他很小的時候已經對歐洲音樂非常熟悉。作為父親的學生,他16歲的時候就指揮了孟買交響樂團。可是他遵循父母的意願,去學習醫學。 但上了兩個學期的課之後,他就轉投到音樂的懷抱中了。18歲的時候他去了維也納音樂學院學習鋼琴,作曲。在漢斯·斯瓦洛夫斯基底下完成了指揮的學業。
1958年他利物浦國際指揮大賽上勝出,並在當地擔任一樂團的副指揮一職。20多歲的梅塔就已經指揮過維也納愛樂樂團和柏林愛樂樂團。而且時至今日,他們還保持著緊密的合作關係。在美國坦格伍德指揮大賽上他獲得了第二名(第一名是阿巴多)。這時候他認識了波士頓交響樂團的指揮查爾斯·孟許,後者對梅塔影響深遠。1960年他第一次和紐約愛樂,費城樂團和蒙特婁交響樂團合作,1962到1966年他還任蒙特婁交響樂團的首席指揮。
祖賓·梅塔在1962年到1978年任洛杉磯愛樂樂團音樂總監。1969年他還成為了以色列愛樂樂團的音樂顧問,1977年升為首席指揮,1981年任終身音樂總監。1978年他成為美國五大交響樂之一——紐約愛樂樂團的音樂總監,歷時13年,直到繼任者庫特·馬蘇爾的到來。
歌劇方面,他在蒙特婁、大都會歌劇院、維也納國立歌劇院、巴伐利亞國家歌劇院、倫敦皇家歌劇院、柯文特花園指揮過歌劇演出。
1998年起,梅塔成為巴伐利亞國家歌劇院音樂總監。
Zubin Mehta was born into a Parsi family in Bombay (now Mumbai), India, the son of Mehli and Tehmina Mehta. His father Mehli Mehta was a violinist and founding conductor of the Bombay Symphony Orchestra.
Zubin is an alumnus of St. Mary's (ISC) High School, Mazagoan, Mumbai and St. Xavier's College, Mumbai. Zubin initially intended to study medicine, but eventually became a music student in Vienna at the age of 18, under the eminent instructor Hans Swarowsky. Also at the same academy along with Zubin were conductor Claudio Abbado and conductor/pianist Daniel Barenboim.
In 1958, Mehta made his conducting debut in Vienna. The same year he won the International Conducting Competition in Liverpool and was appointed assistant conductor of the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra.
Mehta soon rose to the rank of chief conductor when he was made Music Director of the Montreal Symphony Orchestra in 1960, a post he held until 1967. In 1961, he was named assistant conductor of the Los Angeles Philharmonic; however, the orchestra's music director designate, Georg Solti, was not consulted on the appointment, and Solti subsequently resigned in protest; soon after, Mehta himself was named Music Director of the orchestra, and held the post from 1962 to 1978.
In 1978 Mehta became the Music Director and Principal Conductor of the New York Philharmonic and remained there until his resignation in 1991, becoming the longest holder of the post.
The Israel Philharmonic Orchestra appointed Mehta its Music Advisor in 1969, Music Director in 1977, and made him its Music Director for Life in 1981.
Since 1985, Mehta has been chief conductor of the Teatro del Maggio Musicale Fiorentino in Florence. Additionally, from 1998 until 2006, Mehta was Music Director of the Bavarian State Opera in Munich. The Munich Philharmonic Orchestra named him its Honorary Conductor. Since 2005, Mehta has been the main conductor (together with Lorin Maazel) of the new opera house of the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ci?ncies in Valencia.
Zubin Mehta received praise early in his career for dynamic interpretations of the large scale symphonic music of Anton Bruckner, Richard Strauss, Gustav Mahler and Franz Schmidt. He has also made a recording of Indian instrumentalist, Ravi Shankar's Sitar Concerto No. 2, with Shankar and the London Philharmonic Orchestra. His conducting is also renowned as being flamboyant and forceful in performance.
Mehta has conducted the Vienna New Year's Concert in the years 1990, 1995, 1998 and 2007.
As a double bassist, one of his most memorable performances was in a collaboration with Itzhak Perlman, Pinchas Zuckerman, Jacqueline du Pr? and Daniel Barenboim in a performance of Schubert's Trout Quintet in the summer of 1969.
In 1990, he conducted the Orchestra del Maggio Musicale Fiorentino and the Orchestra del Teatro dell'Opera di Roma in the first ever Three Tenors concert in Rome, joining the tenors again in 1994 at the Dodger Stadium, Los Angeles. In June 1994, Mehta performed the Mozart Requiem, along with the members of the Sarajevo Symphony Orchestra and Chorus at the ruins of Sarajevo's National Library, in a fund raising concert for the victims of armed conflict and remembrance of the thousands of people killed in the Yugoslav wars. On August 29, 1999, he conducted Mahler Symphony No. 2 (Resurrection), at the vicinity of Buchenwald concentration camp in the German city of Weimar, with both the Bavarian State Orchestra and the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, sitting alongside each other. He toured his native country India and home city Mumbai (Bombay) in 1984, with the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, and again in November-December 1994, with the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, along with soloists Itzhak Perlman and Gil Shaham. In 1997 and 1998, Mehta worked in collaboration with Chinese film director Zhang Yimou on a production of the opera Turandot by Giacomo Puccini which they took to Florence, Italy and then to Beijing, China where it was staged, in its actual surroundings, in the Forbidden City with over 300 extras and 300 soldiers. for eight historic performances. The making of this production was chronicled in a documentary called The Turandot Project which Mehta narrated.
On 26 December 2005, the first anniversary of the Indian Ocean Tsunami, Zubin Mehta along with the Bavarian State Orchestra performed for the first time in Chennai (formerly called Madras) at the world famous "Madras Music Academy". This special Tsunami memorial concert was organised by the Madras German consulate along with the Max-Mueller Bhavan/Goethe institute. The team performed to a packed hall of select invitees. Nearly 3000 people turned up including eminent personalities such as Amartya Sen (Nobel Laureate in economics) and the Tamil Nadu governor, Surjit Singh Barnala. He also performed in Delhi on December 28 at the Indira Gandhi Stadium. 2006 will be his last year with the Bavarian State Orchestra. He conducted in Andrea Bocelli's Verdi Album in 2000, as well as in two of his seven complete recorded operas la Boheme and Tosca in 2000 and 2003.
Conductor Zubin Mehta laughs with singers Dolly Parton and Smokey Robinson during a reception for the Kennedy Center honorees in the East Room of the White House on Sunday, December 3, 2006.In 1999 Zubin Mehta was presented the "Lifetime Achievement Peace and Tolerance Award" of the United Nations.
In 2001, the Government of India honoured him with the Padma Vibhushan, India's second highest civilian award.
In September, 2006 the Kennedy Center announced Maestro Mehta as one of the receipients of that year's Kennedy Center Honors. These were presented on December 2, 2006.
On February 3, 2007, Zubin Mehta was the recipient of the Second Annual Bridgebuilder Award at Loyola Marymount University
Conductor Karl B?hm awarded Mehta the Nikisch Ring — the Vienna Philharmonic Ring of Honor.
Mehta is an honorary citizen of both Florence and Tel Aviv and was made an honorary member of the Vienna State Opera in 1997. In 2001 he was bestowed the title of “Honorary Conductor” of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra and in 2004 the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra awarded him the same title, as did the Los Angeles Philharmonic and the Teatro del Maggio Musicale Fiorentino in 2006. At the end of his tenure with the Bavarian State Opera he was named Honorary Conductor of the Bavarian State Orchestra and Honorary Member of the Bavarian State Opera, and the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde Wien appointed him honorary member in November 2007.
 
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Monteux
Pierre Monteux - 蒙都 - 1875-1964
Pierre Monteux youtube中文資料暫缺 維基百科Pierre Monteux wikipedia蒙都 googlePierre Monteux google
中文資料暫缺
Monteux studied violin from an early age, entering the Paris Conservatoire at the age of nine. He became a proficient violinist, good enough to share the Conservatoire's violin prize in 1896 with Jacques Thibaud. In his spare time he also played at the Folies Berg?res. He later took up the viola and played in the Geloso Quartet which played one of Brahms's string quartets in a private performance for the composer and in the orchestra of the Op?ra-Comique, leading the viola section in the premi?re of Debussy's opera, Pell?as et M?lisande in 1902.
In 1910, Monteux took a conducting post at the Dieppe casino. The next year, 1911, he became conductor of Sergei Diaghilev's ballet company, the Ballets Russes. In this capacity he conducted the premi?res of Stravinsky's Petrushka (1911) and The Rite of Spring (1913) – with its famous riot – as well as Debussy's Jeux (1913) and Ravel's Daphnis et Chlo? (1912). This established the course of his career, and for the rest of his life he was noted particularly for his interpretations of Russian and French music.
With the outbreak of World War I, Monteux was called up for military service, but was discharged in 1916, and travelled to the United States. There he took charge of the French repertoire at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City from 1917 to 1919. He also conducted the American premi?re of Rimsky-Korsakov's opera The Golden Cockerel at the Metropolitan Opera.
He then moved to the Boston Symphony Orchestra (1919-1924). He had a major effect on the Boston ensemble's sound, and was able to fashion the orchestra as he pleased after a strike led to thirty of its members leaving. He also introduced a number of new works in Boston, notably works by French composers. Monteux in 1924 conducted the orchestra in the New York premi?re of The Rite of Spring, a performance which included a "galvanized" 15-year-old Elliott Carter in the audience, according to a 2008 report. (Carter was again in attendance, on the occasion of his 100th birthday in Carnegie Hall in 2008 when the orchestra, now under the baton of James Levine, again performed the Stravinsky piece.)
In 1924, Monteux also began an association with the Concertgebouw Orchestra of Amsterdam, serving as "first conductor" ("eerste dirigent") alongside Willem Mengelberg. In 1929, he founded the Orchestre Symphonique de Paris, which he conducted until 1935. In the year the orchestra was founded, he conducted it in the world premi?re of Sergei Prokofiev's Symphony No. 3.
Monteux then returned to the United States, and worked with the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra from 1935 to 1952. He began recording with the orchestra for RCA Victor in 1941 and made numerous discs in San Francisco's War Memorial Opera House for the next 11 years. In 1943, he founded a conducting school, The Pierre Monteux School for Conductors and Orchestra Musicians, in Hancock, Maine, the childhood home of his second wife, Doris Hodgkins Monteux, where Monteux was now living. There he taught such future conductors as Lorin Maazel, Neville Marriner, Andr? Previn, Werner Torkanowsky and David Zinman. In 1946, he became a United States citizen. He made a nostalgic return to San Francisco in 1960 to guest conduct the orchestra and to record Richard Wagner's Siegfried Idyll and Richard Strauss's Death and Transfiguration for RCA Victor, the only stereophonic recordings he made with his former orchestra.
In 1951, Monteux renewed his association with the Boston Symphony as a regular guest conductor. He conducted it in Boston, at Tanglewood, and on a transcontinental tour and on two tours to Europe. Monteux also recorded the Boston Symphony for RCA Victor. He continued to conduct the Boston Symphony until his death in 1964.
From 1961 to 1964 he was principal conductor of the London Symphony Orchestra. He was 86 when he was invited to take the post, and he famously accepted on condition that he had a 25-year contract, with a 25-year option of renewal. With the LSO Monteux gave the 50th anniversary performance of The Rite of Spring, at the Royal Albert Hall, London, in the presence of the composer. In his last studio sessions, for Philips Records in 1964, Monteux recorded a disc with the LSO and his son, the flautist Claude Monteux, the only gramophone recording Pierre and Claude made together.
Pierre Monteux died in Hancock in 1964.
Monteux observed, 'Our principal work is to keep the orchestra together and carry out the composer's instructions, not to be sartorial models, cause dowagers to swoon, or distract audiences by our "interpretation"'. He advised the young Previn that when orchestras are playing well the conductor should not interfere with them. 'His approach to all music is that of the master-craftsman,' according to an approving critic in 1957. The record producer John Culshaw described Monteux as 'that rarest of beings — a conductor who was loved by his orchestras' and said that 'to call him a legend would be to understate the case.' Toscanini observed that Monteux had the best baton technique he had ever seen.
 
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Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn - 孟德爾頌 - 1809-1847
Felix Mendelssohn youtube費利克斯•孟德爾頌 維基百科Felix Mendelssohn wikipedia孟德爾頌 googleFelix Mendelssohn google
德國作曲家。他是哲學家摩西•孟德爾頌的孫子,成長於一個富裕的猶太人家庭,他們已轉信新教。早年在母親的沙龍上受到啟發,十一歲開始作曲,十六歲時作出了自己的第一首成名曲《降E調八重奏》和《仲夏夜之夢序曲》。他在1829年指揮演出了巴哈的《馬太受難曲》,這是一百年來的首次演出,為巴哈藝術的復活作出了重大貢獻。《宗教改革交響曲》(1832)和《義大利交響曲》(1833)也是這一時期所作。在天主教城市杜塞爾多夫擔任音樂總監(1833-1835)後,他在新教城市萊比錫擔任了同樣的職位。他在那裡成立了布商大廈管弦樂團,並同該樂團一起建立了歷史協奏曲的基本編制,至今仍為大家遵守的一個標準。他曾在柏林擔任管弦樂隊指揮(1841-1845),但卻受挫不少。他一生的最後十年創作了包括《蘇格蘭交響曲》(1842)、《小提琴協奏曲》(1844)和宗教劇《以利亞》(1846)。他最親愛的姐姐芬妮(1805-1847)被認為與他一樣具有相等的音樂天賦,但在同畫家亨澤爾(1794-1861)結婚前一直沒得到鼓勵,之後創作了五百餘部作品。她的去世對孟德爾頌而言無疑是一個沈重的打擊,多年來超負荷的工作一時之間將他擊垮,他在姐姐去世六個月後也不幸離開人世,享年三十八歲。其他作品還包括宗教劇《聖保羅》,幾首音樂會序曲,大型鋼琴組曲《無詞歌》,以及兩首鋼琴協奏曲。
German composer. Grandson of Moses Mendelssohn, he grew up in a wealthy Jewish family that had converted to Protestantism. He was exposed early to his mother's glittering salon, and began to compose at 11. At 16 he wrote his first masterpieces, the Octet in E-flat and the overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream. In 1829 he conducted the first performance of J.S. Bach's St. Matthew Passion in 100 years, greatly contributing to the Bach revival. His “Reformation” (1832) and “Italian” (1833) symphonies date from this period. After serving as music director of the Catholic city of Düsseldorf 1833-35, he took the parallel position in Protestant Leipzig. There he built up the Gewandhaus Orchestra, with which he established the historical concert programming that has remained standard to the present day. His appointment as kapellmeister in Berlin (1841-45) was a source of much frustration. His last decade produced such great works as the “Scottish” Symphony (1842), the violin concerto (1844), and the oratorio Elijah (1846). His beloved sister, Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel (1805-1847), had been considered his equal in musical talent as a girl, but was discouraged from composing until her marriage to the painter Wilhelm Hensel (1794-1861), and eventually wrote more than 500 works. Her death was a severe shock to Mendelssohn; years of overwork simultaneously caught up with him, and he died six months after her at 38. His other works include the oratorio St. Paul, several concert overtures, the large piano set Songs Without Words, and two piano concertos.
 
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Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - 莫札特 - 1756-1791
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart youtube沃爾夫岡•阿馬多伊斯•莫扎特 維基百科Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart wikipedia莫札特 googleWolfgang Amadeus Mozart google
原名Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart。奧地利作曲家。小提琴家和作曲家利奧波德•莫札特(1719-1787)之子,誕生於父親出版小提琴演奏法暢銷論著的那一年。他與姊姊瑪麗亞•安娜•娜內爾(1751-1829)都是神童;莫札特四歲時,在無人指導的情況下演奏娜內爾的鍵盤課程。五歲時,他開始作曲,並第一次公開演出。1762年起,利奧波德帶著他們旅行全歐,炫耀著「上帝賜予在薩爾斯堡出生的奇蹟」。他們在第一輪巡迴表演(1762-1769)來到法國和英國,莫札特在那裡,遇到巴哈,並寫下第一首交響曲(1764)。接著是義大利之旅(1769-1774),他在那裡首次見識到海頓的弦樂四重奏,並寫下自己的第一部義大利歌劇。1775-1777年寫出小提琴協奏曲和第一批鋼琴奏鳴曲。1777年他遇到韋伯一家人,即未來妻子的家庭。他的母親死於1779年,莫札特後來回到薩爾斯堡擔任大教堂的風琴師,1781年寫出連環歌劇《克里特王伊多梅尼奧》。由於不滿大主教的統治,1781年離職搬到韋伯家(當時在維也納),開始他的獨立生涯。他娶康斯坦策•韋伯為妻,教授鋼琴課程,還寫下《後宮誘逃》(1782)和多首偉大的鋼琴協奏曲。1780年代晚期成就達到顛峰,而他把弦樂四重奏獻給海頓(他稱莫札特是現世最偉大的作曲家),《費加洛婚禮》(1786)、《唐•喬凡尼》(1787)、《女人心》(1790)三部偉大的歌劇則採用達•蓬特的腳本,還有卓越的晚期交響曲。晚年他寫作歌劇《魔笛》和最偉大的《安魂曲》(未完成)。儘管事業成功,他卻總是缺錢(可能是賭債和喜愛華服的緣故),必須向朋友大舉借款。他在三十五歲去世,病因可能是腎臟感染。沒有其他作曲家像他一樣在短短一生留下如此不尋常的遺產。
 以下曲目摘自《你不可不知道的莫札特100首經典創作及其故事》。編者:許麗雯。出版:高談文化。初版:2005年11月
 莫札特 - Mozart - 交響曲 - Mozart+Symphony
莫札特 - Mozart - 交響曲 -第25號 - g小調 - Symphony No. 25, in g minor - K. 183
莫札特 - Mozart - 交響曲 -第35號 - D大調 - 哈弗納 - Symphony No. 35, in D major - Haffner - K. 385
莫札特 - Mozart - 交響曲 -第36號 - C大調 - 林茲 - Symphony No. 36, in C major - Linz - K. 425
莫札特 - Mozart - 交響曲 -第38號 - D大調 - 布拉格 - Symphony No. 38, in D major - Prgue - K. 504
莫札特 - Mozart - 交響曲 -第39號 - 降E大調 - Symphony No. 39, in E-flat major - K. 543
莫札特 - Mozart - 交響曲 -第40號 - g小調 - Symphony No. 40, in g minor - K. 550
莫札特 - Mozart - 交響曲 -第41號 - C大調 - 朱彼特 - Symphony No. 41, in C major - Jupiter - K. 551
 莫札特 - Mozart - 管弦樂曲 - Mozart+Orchestra
莫札特 - Mozart - 管弦樂小夜曲 - 第6號 - D大調 - 小夜曲 - Serenade No. 6 for Orchestra, in D major - Serenata Notturna - K. 239
莫札特 - Mozart - 管弦樂小夜曲 - 第7號 - D大調 - 哈弗納 - Serenade No. 7 for Orchestra, in D major - Haffner - K. 250
莫札特 - Mozart - 管弦樂小夜曲 - 第9號 - D大調 - 郵號 - Serenade No. 9 for Orchestra, in D major - Posthorn - K. 320
莫札特 - Mozart - 管弦樂小夜曲 - 第10號 - 降B大調 - 大組曲 - Serenade No. 10 for Winds, in B-flat major - Gran Partita - K. 361
莫札特 - Mozart - 小夜曲 - 第11號 - 降E大調 - Serenade No. 11 for Winds, in E-flat major - K. 375
莫札特 - Mozart - 小夜曲 - 第13號 - G大調 - 小小夜曲 - Serenade No. 13 for Strings, in G major - Eine kleine Nachtmusik - K. 525
莫札特 - Mozart - 弦樂四重奏嬉遊曲 - 薩爾茲堡交響曲第1號 - D大調 - Divertimento for Strings Quartet (or Strings Orchestra), in D major = Salzburg Symphony No. 1 - K. 136
莫札特 - Mozart - 弦樂四重奏嬉遊曲 - 薩爾茲堡交響曲第2號 - 降B大調 - Divertimento for Strings Quartet (or Strings Orchestra), in B-flat major = Salzburg Symphony No. 2 - K. 137
莫札特 - Mozart - 弦樂四重奏嬉遊曲 - 薩爾茲堡交響曲第3號 - F大調 - Divertimento for Strings Quartet (or Strings Orchestra), in F major = Salzburg Symphony No. 3 - K. 138
莫札特 - Mozart - 嬉遊曲 - 第11號 - D大調 - Divertimento No. 11 for Oboe, 2 Horns & Strings, in D major - K. 251
莫札特 - Mozart - 法國號與弦樂嬉遊曲 - 第17號 - D大調 - Divertimento No. 17 for 2 Horns & Strings, in D major - K. 334
莫札特 - Mozart - 嬉遊曲 - F大調 - 音樂的玩笑 - Divertimento No. 17 for 2 Horns & Strings, in F major - Ein musikalischer = A Musical Joke - K. 522
莫札特 - Mozart - 共濟會送葬音樂 -c小調 - Maurerische Trauermusik (Masonic Funeral Music) for Orchestra, in c minor - K.477
莫札特 - Mozart - 日爾曼舞曲第三曲 - C大調 - 雪橇 - German dance for Orchestra No. 3, in C major - Sleigh Ride = Die Schlittenfahrt - K. 605-3
 莫札特 - Mozart - 協奏曲 - Mozart+Concetro
莫札特 - Mozart - 雙鋼琴協奏曲 - 降E大調 - 雙鋼琴協奏曲 - K. 365
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴協奏曲 - 第9號 - 降E大調 - 茱儂 - K. 271
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴協奏曲 - 第20號 - d小調 - K. 466
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴協奏曲 - 第21號 - C大調 - 鴛鴦戀 - K. 467
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴協奏曲 - 第23號 - A大調 - K. 488
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴協奏曲 - 第24號 - c小調 - K. 491
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴協奏曲 - 第25號 - C大調 - K. 503
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴協奏曲 - 第26號 - D大調 - 加冕式 - K. 537
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴協奏曲 - 第27號 - 降B大調 - K. 599
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴與管弦樂的輪旋曲 - D大調 - K. 382
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴與管弦樂的輪旋曲 - A大調 - K. 386
莫札特 - Mozart - 小提琴協奏曲 - 第1號 - 降B大調 - K. 207
莫札特 - Mozart - 小提琴協奏曲 - 第2號 - D大調 - K. 211
莫札特 - Mozart - 小提琴協奏曲 - 第3號 - G大調 - K. 216
莫札特 - Mozart - 小提琴協奏曲 - 第4號 - D大調 - K. 218
莫札特 - Mozart - 小提琴協奏曲 - 第5號 - A大調 - 土耳其風 - K. 219
莫札特 - Mozart - 小提琴與管弦樂團的慢板 - E大調 - K. 261
莫札特 - Mozart - 小提琴與管弦樂團的輪旋曲 - 降B大調 - K. 269
莫札特 - Mozart - 小提琴與管弦樂輪旋曲 - C大調 - K. 373
莫札特 - Mozart - 為小提琴與中提琴的協奏交響曲 - 降E大調 - K. 364
莫札特 - Mozart - 長笛協奏曲 - 第1號 - G大調 - K. 313
莫札特 - Mozart - 雙簧管協奏曲 - C大調 - K. 314
莫札特 - Mozart - 長笛與管弦樂的行板 - C大調 - K. 315
莫札特 - Mozart - 長笛與豎琴協奏曲 - C大調 - K. 299
莫札特 - Mozart - 單簧管協奏曲 - A大調 - K. 622
莫札特 - Mozart - 低音管協奏曲 - 降b小調 - K. 191
莫札特 - Mozart - 法國號協奏曲 - 第1號 - D大調 - k. 412/514
莫札特 - Mozart - 法國號協奏曲 - 第2號 - 降E大調 - K. 417
莫札特 - Mozart - 法國號協奏曲 - 第3號 - 降E大調 - K. 447
莫札特 - Mozart - 法國號協奏曲 - 第4號 - 降E大調 - K. 495
 莫札特 - Mozart - 室內樂曲 - Mozart+QuintetMozart+QuartetMozart+TrioMozart+Duo
莫札特 - Mozart - 法國號與弦樂五重奏 - 降E大調 - K. 407
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴與管樂的五重奏 - 降E大調 - K. 452
莫札特 - Mozart - 單簧管五重奏 - A大調 - K. 581
莫札特 - Mozart - 長笛四重奏 - 第1號 - D大調 - K. 285
莫札特 - Mozart - 長笛四重奏 - 第2號 -G大調 - K. 285A
莫札特 - Mozart - 長笛四重奏 - 第3號 -C大調 - K. 285B
莫札特 - Mozart - 長笛四重奏 - 第4號 -A大調 - K. 298
莫札特 - Mozart - 長笛四重奏 - 第15號 -d小調 - K. 421
莫札特 - Mozart - 弦樂四重奏 - 第17號 - 降B大調 - K. 458
莫札特 - Mozart - 弦樂四重奏 - 第21號 - D大調 - 普魯士王第1號 - K. 575
莫札特 - Mozart - 小提琴與中提琴二重奏曲 - 第1號 - G大調 - K. 423
莫札特 - Mozart - 小提琴與中提琴二重奏曲 - 第2號 - 降B大調 - K. 424
 莫札特 - Mozart - 獨奏曲 - Mozart+SonataMozart+VariationsMozart+FantasiaMozart+Rondo
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第4號 - 降E大調 - K. 282
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第5號 - G大調 - K. 283
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第6號 - D大調 - K. 284
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第8號 - a小調 - K. 310
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第9號 - D大調 - K. 311
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第10號 - C大調 - K. 330
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第11號 - A大調 - K. 331
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第13號 - 降B大調 - K. 333
莫札特 - Mozart - 雙鋼琴奏鳴曲 - D大調 - K. 448
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - F大調 - K. 533
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第15號 - C大調 - 初學者奏鳴曲 - K. 545
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第16號 - 降B大調 - K. 570
莫札特 - Mozart - 小提琴與鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第21號 - e小調 - K. 304
莫札特 - Mozart - 小提琴與鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第24號 - F大調 - K. 376
莫札特 - Mozart - 小提琴與鋼琴奏鳴曲 - 第26號 - 降B大調 - K. 378
莫札特 - Mozart - 小星星變奏曲 - 根據法國歌曲 - 媽媽請聽我說所作的十二段變奏曲 - C大調 - K. 265
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴幻想曲 - d小調 - K. 397
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴幻想曲 - c小調 - K. 475
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴輪旋曲 - 第1號 - D大調 - K. 485
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴輪旋曲 - 第3號 - a小調 - K. 511
莫札特 - Mozart - 鋼琴慢板 - b小調 - K. 540
 莫札特 - Mozart - 歌劇 - Mozart+Opera
莫札特 - Mozart - 歌劇 - 伊多梅尼歐 - K. 366
莫札特 - Mozart - 歌劇 - 後宮的誘逃 - K. 384
莫札特 - Mozart - 歌劇 - 劇院經理人 - K. 486
莫札特 - Mozart - 歌劇 - 費加洛的婚禮 - K. 492
莫札特 - Mozart - 歌劇 - 喬望尼先生 - K. 527
莫札特 - Mozart - 歌劇 - 女人皆如此 - K. 588
莫札特 - Mozart - 歌劇 - 魔笛 - K. 620
莫札特 - Mozart - 歌劇 - 狄托王的仁慈 - K. 621
 莫札特 - Mozart - 宗教曲 - Mozart+ReligiousMozart+ExsultateMozart+MotetMozart+MassMozart+Requiem
莫札特 - Mozart - 經文歌 - 欣喜吧蒙福的靈魂 - K. 165
莫札特 - Mozart - 經文歌 - 聖體頌 - D大調 - K. 618
莫札特 - Mozart - 彌撒曲 - 第15號 - 加冕式 - C大調 - K. 317
莫札特 - Mozart - 彌撒曲 - 第17號 - 未完成 - c小調 - 偉大 - K. 427
莫札特 - Mozart - 安魂曲 - 未完成 - d小調 - K. 626
 莫札特 - Mozart - 歌曲 - Mozart+Song
莫札特 - Mozart - 歌曲 - 紫羅蘭 - K. 476
莫札特 - Mozart - 歌曲 - 抒情調 - 如果天上有慈悲的星星 - K. 538
莫札特 - Mozart - 歌曲 - 春天的憧憬 - K. 596
 
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Mravinsky
Evgeny Mravinsky - 姆拉汶斯基 - 1903-1988
Evgeny Mravinsky youtube中文資料暫缺 維基百科Evgeny Mravinsky wikipedia姆拉汶斯基 googleEvgeny Mravinsky google
中文資料暫缺
Mravinsky was born in Saint Petersburg. His father died in 1918, and in that same year, he began to work backstage at the Mariinsky Theatre. He first studied biology at the university in Leningrad, before going to the Leningrad Conservatory to study music. He served as a ballet repetiteur from 1923 to 1931. His first public conducting appearance was in 1929. Through the 1930s he conducted at the Kirov Ballet and Bolshoi Opera. In September 1938, he won the All-Union Conductors Competition in Moscow.
In October 1938, Mravinsky took up the post that he was to hold until 1988: principal conductor of the Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra, with whom he had made his debut as a conductor in 1931. Under Mravinsky, the Leningrad Philharmonic gained a legendary reputation, particularly in Russian music such as Tchaikovsky and Shostakovich. During World War II, Mravinsky and the orchestra were evacuated to Siberia.
Legend has it that at the first performance of Shostakovich's Symphony No. 5, during the applause immediately after the performance, Mravinsky took the score in his hand and waved it above his head. Mravinsky gave world premieres of six symphonies by Shostakovich: numbers 5, 6, 8 (which Shostakovich dedicated to Mravinsky), 9, 10 and finally 12 in 1961. His refusal to conduct the premiere of Shostakovich's 13th Symphony in 1962 caused a permanent rupture in their friendship.
He premiered Sergei Prokofiev's sixth symphony in Leningrad the year of its composition (1947, ).
Mravinsky made commercial studio recordings from 1938 to 1961. His issued recordings from after 1961 were taken from live concerts. His final recording was from an April 1984 live performance of Shostakovich's Symphony No. 12.
Mravinsky first took the orchestra on tour in 1946 to the Prague Spring Festival. Later tours included a June 1956 itinerary to West Germany, East Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Their only tour to Great Britain was in September 1960 to the Edinburgh Festival and the Royal Festival Hall, London. Their first tour to Japan was in May 1973. Their last foreign tour was in 1984, to West Germany.
His last concert was on 6 March 1987 (Schubert, Symphony No. 8, and Brahms, Symphony No. 4). Mravinsky died in Leningrad in 1988, aged 84.
 
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Munch
Charles Munch - 孟許 - 1891-1968
Charles Munch (conductor) youtube資料暫缺 維基百科Charles Munch (conductor) wikipedia孟許 googleCharles Munch (conductor) google
中文資料暫缺
Munch was born in Stra?burg, Alsace, Germany (now France, since 1919). He was the fifth in a family of six children. Although his first ambition was to be a locomotive engineer, he studied violin at the Strasbourg Conservatoire. His father, Ernest M?nch, was a professor of organ at the Conservatoire and performed at the cathedral. His father also taught and directed an orchestra with his son in the second violins. After receiving his diploma in 1912, Charles studied with Carl Flesch in Berlin and Lucien Capet at the Conservatoire de Paris. He was conscripted into the German army in World War I, serving as a sergeant gunner. He was gassed at P?ronne and wounded at Verdun.
In 1920, he became professor of violin at the Strasbourg Conservatoire and assistant concertmaster of the Strasbourg Orchestra under Joseph Guy Ropartz, who directed the conservatory. In the early 1920s he was concertmaster for Hermann Abendroth's G?rzenich Orchestra in Cologne. He then served as concertmaster of the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra under Wilhelm Furtw?ngler and Bruno Walter from 1926 to 1933.
At the age of 41, Munch made his conducting debut in Paris on November 1, 1932. Munch's fianc?e, Genevi?ve Maury, granddaughter of a founder of the Nestl? Chocolate Company, rented the hall and hired the Straram Orchestra. She was also an accomplished translator of Thomas Mann.
Following this success, he conducted the Concerts Siohan, the Lamoureux Orchestra, the new Orchestre Symphonique de Paris, the Biarritz Orchestra (Summer 1933), the Soci?t? Philharmonique de Paris (1935 to 1938), and the Orchestre de la Soci?t? des Concerts du Conservatoire (1937 to 1946). He became known as a champion of Hector Berlioz, and befriended Arthur Honegger, Albert Roussel, and Francis Poulenc. During these years, Munch gave first performances of works by Honegger, Jean Roger-Ducasse, Joseph Guy Ropartz, Roussel, and Florent Schmitt. He became director of the Soci?t? Philharmonique de Paris in 1938 and taught conducting at the Conservatoire de Paris from 1937 to 1945.
Plaque at Place Emile Dreux, village de Voisins in Louveciennes, Yvelines, FranceHe remained in France conducting the Conservatoire Orchestra during the German occupation, believing it best to maintain the morale of the French people. He refused conducting engagements in Germany and also refused to perform contemporary German works. He protected members of his orchestra from the Gestapo and contributed from his income to the French Resistance. For this, he received the L?gion d'honneur with the red ribbon in 1945 and the degree of Commandeur in 1952.
Munch made his d?but with the Boston Symphony Orchestra on December 27, 1946. He was its Music Director from 1949 to 1962. Munch was also Director of the Berkshire Music Festival and Berkshire Music Center (Tanglewood) from 1951 through 1962. He led relaxed rehearsals which orchestra members appreciated after the authoritarian Serge Koussevitzky. Munch also received honorary degrees from Boston University, Harvard University, and Brandeis University.
He excelled in the modern French repertoire, especially Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel, and was considered to be an authoritative performer of Hector Berlioz. However, Munch's programs also regularly featured works by composers such as Bach, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Schumann, Brahms, and Wagner. His thirteen-year tenure in Boston included 39 world premieres and 17 American first performances, and offered audiences 168 contemporary works. Fourteen of these premieres were works commissioned by the Boston Symphony and the Koussevitzky Music Foundation to celebrate the Orchestra's 75th Anniversary in 1956. (A 15th commission was never completed or performed.)
Munch invited former Boston Symphony music director Pierre Monteux to guest conduct, record, and tour with the orchestra after an absence of more than 25 years. Under Munch, guest conductors became an integral part of the Boston Symphony's programming, both in Boston and at Tanglewood.
Munch led the Boston Symphony on its first transcontinental tour of the United States in 1953. He became the first conductor to take them on tour overseas: Europe in 1952 and 1956, and East Asia and Australia in 1960. During the 1956 tour, the Boston Symphony was the first American orchestra to perform in the Soviet Union.
The Boston Symphony under Munch made a series of recordings for RCA Victor beginning in 1949 and from 1954 to 1962, released in both monaural and stereophonic versions.
Selections from Boston Symphony rehearsals under Leonard Bernstein, Koussevitzky, and Munch were broadcast nationally on the NBC Radio Network from 1948-1951. NBC carried portions of the Orchestra's performances from 1955-1957. Beginning in 1951, the BSO was broadcast over local radio stations in the Boston area. Starting in 1957, Boston Symphony performances under Munch and guest conductors were disseminated regionally, nationally, and internationally through the Boston Symphony Transcription Trust. And, under Munch, the Boston Symphony first appeared on television.
Munch returned to France and in 1963 became president of the ?cole Normale de Musique. He was also named president of the Guilde Fran?aise des Artistes Solistes. During the 1960s, Munch appeared regularly as a guest conductor throughout America, Europe, and Japan. In 1967, at the request of France's Minister of Culture, Andr? Malraux, he founded the first full-time salaried French orchestra, the Orchestre de Paris, and conducted its first concert on November 14, 1967. The following year, he died of a heart attack suffered at his hotel in Richmond, Virginia while on an American tour with his new orchestra. EMI recorded his final sessions, including Ravel's Piano Concerto in G, with this orchestra, and released them posthumously.
 
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Mussorgsky
Modest Mussorgsky - 穆梭斯基 - 1839-1881
Modest Mussorgsky youtube莫捷斯特•彼得羅維奇•穆索斯基 維基百科Modest Mussorgsky wikipedia穆索斯基 googleModest Mussorgsky google
俄國作曲家。他很早就受到民間故事的啟發而在鋼琴上即興演奏,十幾歲已無師自通學會作曲。他認識了幾位作曲家,後來與這些人一起被稱為「強力五人集團」(參閱Mighty Five, The)。1857年隨巴拉基列夫(M. Balakirev)上了生平第一堂作曲課,很快創作了一些鋼琴曲和歌曲。1858年一次重病之後他從軍中退役,此後從事政府文職工作。1865年他母親去世,使他陷於酗酒而不能自拔,惡化的酒精中毒終於使他失業。與個人生活的每況愈下相伴隨的,卻是他作為作曲家的日漸成熟。這段期間他創作了最主要的作品,包括交響詩《荒山之夜》(1867)、大型歌劇《鮑里斯•戈東諾夫》(1868)和著名的鋼琴組曲《展覽會之畫》(1874)。他因與酒精有關的一些疾病而死,享年僅四十二歲,歌劇《霍萬斯基黨人之亂》未能完成。
Russian composer. He was early inspired by folktales to improvise music at the piano. Composing without training in his teens, he met several of the composers with whom he later made up the Mighty Five. He received his first composition lessons from M. Balakirev in 1857, and was soon turning out piano pieces and songs. He resigned from his military regiment after a breakdown in 1858. He had a series of government jobs, but after his mother's death in 1865 his worsening alcoholism eventually made him unemployable. Personal decline was accompanied by maturity as a composer, and he wrote his major works, including Night on Bald Mountain for orchestra (1867), the great opera Boris Godunov (1868), and the famous piano cycle Pictures at an Exhibition (1874). His opera Khovanshchina was left unfinished when he died at 42 of alcohol-related illnesses.
 
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Neumann
Václav Neumann - 紐曼 - 1920-1995
Václav Neumann youtube暫缺 維基百科Václav Neumann wikipedia紐曼 googleVáclav Neumann google
中文簡介暫缺
Vaclav Neumann (September 29, 1920 – September 2, 1995) was a Czech conductor, violinist and viola player.
Neumann was born in Prague where he studied at the Prague Conservatory, with Josef Micka (violin), and with Pavel Dedecek and Metod Dolezil (conducting). He co-founded, and played 1st violin in, the Smetana Quartet, before holding conducting posts in Karlovy Vary and Brno. In 1956 he became conductor at the Komische Oper in Berlin, leaving in 1964 he left to become conductor of the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra. He stayed there until 1968 when he became principal conductor of the Czech Philharmonic, a post he held until 1990.
Neumann taught conducting at the Prague Academy for Music, where his students included Oliver von Dohnanyi and V?tezslav Podrazil.
Neumann was particularly noted as a champion of Czech music, and made the first studio recording of Leos Janacek's opera The Excursions of Mr. Broucek in 1962.
 
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Offenbach
Jacques Offenbach。奧芬巴哈。1819-1880
Jacques Offenbach youtube雅克•奧芬巴赫 維基百科Jacques Offenbach wikipedia奧芬巴哈 googleJacques Offenbach google
原名Jacob Offenbach。德裔法籍作曲家。早年隨父去巴黎,進巴黎音樂學院。1855∼1866年在自建的劇院,演出了不少優秀的輕歌劇。成功之作有《美麗的海倫娜》(1864)、《巴黎的生活》(1866)和《佩里肖勒》(1868)。他唯一的大歌劇《霍夫曼的故事》生前沒有完成。作品風格流暢、典雅。共作有歌劇、舞劇作品一百部以上。
German-French composer. Son of a cantor, he studied at the Paris Conservatoire but had to leave for lack of funds. He first wrote theater music as conductor of the Th??tre-Fran?ais (from 1850); he later opened his own Bouffes Parisiens, for which he wrote 22 one-act works (1855-58). He began writing longer operettas and had a string of hits, including Orpheus in the Underworld (1858), La belle H?l?ne (1864), Bluebeard (1866), La vie Parisienne (1866), and The Grand Duchess of G?rolstein (1868). Dismissed by serious musicians but loved by the public, he suffered setbacks after the Franco-Prussian War and spent his last three years on his masterpiece, The Tales of Hoffmann (1881).
 
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Ormandy
Eugene Ormandy - 尤金•奧曼第 - 1899-1985
Eugene Ormandy youtube尤金•奧曼第 維基百科Eugene Ormandy wikipedia尤金•奧曼第 googleEugene Ormandy google
原名Jenö Blau。匈牙利裔美籍指揮家、小提琴天才。十七歲即任布達佩斯皇家學院小提琴教授,1921年來到紐約,指揮劇院交響樂團,接著指揮明尼亞波利交響樂團(1931∼1936)。與斯多科夫斯基共同擔任費城管弦樂團指揮。1938年任首席指揮,直到1980年退休。他訓練這一樂隊,使那種華麗的天鵝絨般的弦樂色彩成為該樂隊的標誌。
Hungarian-U.S. conductor. A violin prodigy, he became professor of violin at the Budapest Royal Academy at 17. He came to New York in 1921, playing in and conducting a theater orchestra, then served as conductor of the Minneapolis Symphony (1931-36). He shared the Philadelphia Orchestra with L. Stokowski for two years before becoming sole conductor in 1938, and he led the orchestra until he was made laureate in 1980. His background as a string player had much to do with maintaining the rich “Philadelphia sound” created by his predecessor, and the orchestra made scores of recordings under him.
 
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Pachelbel
Johann Pachelbel。帕海貝爾。1653-1706
Pachelbel youtube帕海貝爾 維基百科Johann Pachelbel wikipedia帕海貝爾 googlePachelbel google
德國作曲家及管風琴演奏家。樂風保守,是柏格茲特胡德的朋友,也是約翰•克利斯朵夫•巴哈(1671-1721)的老師,後者又給其弟約翰•塞巴斯蒂安•巴哈授課。一生創作了大量的音樂作品,其中又以管風琴眾讚歌變奏曲和尊主頌曲調最為傑出,不過在今天他則是以《D大調卡農》一曲極受人喜愛而聞名於世,但這部作品可能非出自其手。
German composer and organist. Conservative musically, he was friendly with Dietrich Buxtehude and was the teacher of Johann Christoph Bach (1671-1721), who later gave lessons to his younger brother J.S. Bach's. Though he wrote a huge amount of music, of which his organ chorale variations and Magnificat settings are especially remarkable, he is principally known today for a single piece, the extremely popular [musiccomp]Canon in D Major, which he may not have written.
 
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Paganini
Nicolo Paganini - 帕格尼尼 - 1782-1840
Nicolo Paganini youtube尼可羅•帕格尼尼 維基百科Niccolò Paganini wikipedia帕格尼尼 googleNicolo Paganini google
義大利小提琴家和作曲家。他是個小神童,九歲就加入管弦樂團。1810-1828年到義大利巡迴演出,以小提琴名手著稱,但正統音樂家認為他不過是在賣弄技巧。1820年代,他因染上梅毒而接受水銀療法,面容憔悴為他增添了一絲浪漫氣質。他的國際巡迴演出(1830-1834)雖被一再延期,但在正式演出時,他僂籅漣犍帘M驚人的表現令人為之瘋狂,有人甚至相信他是與魔鬼訂約交換了這種令人吃驚的天賦。帕格尼尼對小提琴演奏技巧進行了很大的創新,他創作了為數眾多的無伴奏小提琴譜,其中包括由小提琴獨奏的二十四首《隨想曲》和六首小提琴協奏曲。
Italian violinist and composer. A prodigy, he joined an orchestra by age 9. He toured Italy 1810-28, renowned as its greatest violin virtuoso in the world though dismissed by serious musicians as a showman. In the 1820s he underwent mercury treatment for syphilis, which left him looking romantically haggard. His long-deferred international tour (1830-34), by which time his expressiveness was equal to his technique, created frenzy, and some believed he had made a pact with the devil for his amazing talent. Paganini greatly extended violin technique; his numerous compositions include 24 Caprices for solo violin and six violin concertos.
 
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Previn
André Previn - 普列文 - 1929-
André Previn youtube安德列•普列文 維基百科André Previn wikipedia普列文 googleAndré Previn google
德國出生的美國鋼琴家、作曲家和指揮。1939年與他的家人逃離納粹迫害,移居洛杉磯。1940年代和1950年代為米高梅公司編管弦樂曲和配樂,此後為多家製片廠撰寫電影音樂。其間,他已成為著名的古典和爵士鋼琴家並開始指揮。在休斯頓交響樂團、倫敦交響樂團、匹茲堡交響樂團和洛杉磯愛樂管弦樂團及皇家愛樂管弦樂團擔任過首席指揮。他創作過交響曲、協奏曲和歌劇《欲望街車》(1998)及其他流行歌曲。1996年他受封為英國爵士,1998年獲頒甘迺迪中心榮譽獎。
U.S. (German-born) pianist, composer, and conductor. Born in Berlin, he fled Nazi persecution with his family and moved to Los Angeles in 1939. He orchestrated and arranged music for MGM in the 1940s and '50s, and thereafter scored films for several studios. Meanwhile he had become a noted classical and jazz pianist and started conducting. He has served as principal conductor of the Houston Symphony, London Symphony, Pittsburgh Symphony, Los Angeles Philharmonic, and Royal Philharmonic orchestras. He has also composed a symphony, concertos, and the opera A Streetcar Named Desire (1998), as well as popular songs. He was awarded a British knighthood (KBE) in 1996 and a Kennedy Center Honor in 1998.
 
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Prokofiev
Sergey Prokofiev - 普羅高菲夫。浦羅高非夫 - 1891-1953
Sergey Prokofiev youtube謝爾蓋•普羅高菲夫 維基百科Sergei Prokofiev wikipedia普羅高菲夫 googleSergei Prokofiev google
俄羅斯作曲家和鋼琴家。他是一名鋼琴家的兒子,在五歲時開始學鋼琴,九歲時創作了一部歌劇。他曾在聖彼得堡音樂學院學習(1904-1914),師從林姆斯基-高沙可夫和其他的音樂家。他多產而高傲,1910年起開始靠當鑒賞家為生。他在畢業演出時演奏了自己的第一首協奏曲。在第一次世界大戰期間,他寫了《西徐亞組曲》(1915)和他的第一部(古典)交響曲(1917)。1912年他的歌劇《三個橘子的愛情》在芝加哥上演。從1922年起,巴黎成了他的據點,他在1920年代完成了三部新的交響樂和完整的歌劇《憤怒的天使》(1927)和《賭徒》(1928)。在1930年代,他回到了俄羅斯,寫了很多芭蕾劇,包括《羅蜜歐與茱麗葉》(1936)和《彼得與狼》(1936)等,並為愛森斯坦的電影《亞歷山大•涅夫斯基》(1938)創作了歌曲。在第二次世界大戰的影響下,他為愛森斯坦的電影《恐怖的伊凡》(1942-1945)創作了歌曲,並寫了歌劇《戰爭與和平》(1943)。政府在1948年對他的作品的譴責對普羅高菲夫而言是一個沈重的打擊,健康狀況每況愈下,並同史達林在同一天去世。
Russian composer and pianist. Son of a pianist, he began writing piano pieces at age 5 and wrote an opera at 9. He studied at the St. Petersburg Conservatory (1904-14) with N. Rimsky-Korsakov and others. Prolific and arrogant, from 1910 he made a living by performing as a virtuoso. He played his own first concerto at his graduation recital. During World War I he wrote his Scythian Suite (1915) and First (“Classical”) Symphony (1917). His opera The Love for Three Oranges premiered in 1921 in Chicago. Paris was his base from 1922, and the 1920s saw three new symphonies and the completed operas The Fiery Angel (1927) and The Gambler (1928). In the 1930s, he was drawn back to Russia; there he wrote scores for the ballet Romeo and Juliet (1936), Peter and the Wolf (1936), and Sergei Eisenstein's film Alexander Nevsky (1938). World War II inspired the score to Eisenstein's Ivan the Terrible (1942-45) and the opera War and Peace (1943). The government's denunciation of his work in 1948 was a harsh blow; his health failed, and he died on the same day as Joseph Stalin.
 
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Puccini
Giacomo Puccini - 普契尼。浦契尼 - 1858-1924
Giacomo Puccini youtube賈科莫•普契尼 維基百科Giacomo Puccini wikipedia普契尼 googleGiacomo Puccini google
義大利作曲家。出生於管風琴演奏家和唱詩班指揮的世家,在聽了威爾第的《阿依達》後決心寫作歌劇。在米蘭音樂學院師從龐基耶利(A. Ponchielli, 1834-1886)。在音樂出版商里科爾迪(G. Ricordi)和博伊托聽過他從頭到尾演唱其第一部歌劇《隨想交響曲》後,他獲得了表演機會。第二部歌劇《愛德加》(1889)雖然未獲成功,但《曼儂•萊斯科》(1893)為他贏得國際聲譽。《波希米亞人》剛開始不怎麼成功,但《托斯卡》成功了。受雇的捧場者擾亂了《蝴蝶夫人》(1904)在史卡拉歌劇院的首演,但次年重演時引起熱潮。因家庭醜聞使他心煩意亂,《西部女郎》在大都會歌劇院初演時已是1910年。隨後在1918年演出三部曲《三聯劇》(包括《賈尼•斯基基》)。死前是世界上最受歡迎的歌劇作曲家,他未完成的《杜蘭朵》由阿爾法諾(Franco Alfano, 1875-1954)完成。
Italian composer. Born into a family of organists and choirmasters, he decided to write operas after hearing G. Verdi's Aìda. At the Milan Conservatory he worked with Amilcare Ponchielli (1834-1886). His first opera, Le villi (1883), was performed after the publisher Giulio Ricordi and A. Boito heard him sing through it. His second, Edgar (1889), was a failure, but Manon Lescaut (1893) brought him international recognition. La bohéme (1896) was not initially a success, but Tosca (1900) was. A paid claque disrupted the La Scala premiere of Madam Butterfly (1904), but the next year's revival was a hit. A domestic scandal distracted him, and it was 1910 before The Girl of the Golden West premiered at the Metropolitan Opera. The trilogy Il trittico (including Gianni Schicchi) followed in 1918. He was the most popular opera composer in the world at the time of his death; his unfinished Turandot was completed by Franco Alfano (1875-1954).
 
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Rachmaninov
Sergei Rachmaninov。Sergei Rachmaninoff - 拉赫曼尼諾夫 - 1873-1943
Sergei Rachmaninoff youtubeSergei Rachmaninov youtube
謝爾蓋•拉赫曼尼諾夫 維基百科Sergei Rachmaninoff wikipedia拉赫曼尼諾夫 googleSergei Rachmaninoff googleRachmaninov google
俄羅斯裔美國作曲家和鋼琴家。曾在聖彼得堡和莫斯科音樂學院學習。在以鋼琴學生身分在畢業時演奏了他第一支協奏曲後(1891),他繼續學習取得作曲的學位,十七天中寫出了他的第一部歌劇《阿列科》(1892)。他的第一部交響曲(1897)是一場災難,使他在三年內都無法作曲。作為鋼琴家,他以偉大的鑑賞力著稱。他周遊各地,同時又回到了多產的作曲狀態。1917年革命後移居美國。他的作品大部分富有晚期浪漫主義的風格,包括三部交響曲、四部鋼琴協奏曲、歌劇《法蘭西斯卡•達•里米尼》(1906)、音樂詩《死之島》(1909)、《聖約翰•克里索斯托的禮拜》(1910)以及《交響舞曲》(1940)。
Russian-U.S. composer and pianist. He studied at the St. Petersburg and Moscow conservatories. After playing his first concerto for his graduation as a piano student (1891), he stayed on to earn a composition degree, writing his first opera, Aleko (1892), in 17 days. His first symphony (1897) was such a disaster that he could not compose for three years. Known for his titanic virtuosity as a pianist, he toured widely while returning to composing prolifically. He moved to the U.S. after the 1917 revolution. His works, most of them in a lush late-Romantic style, include three symphonies, four piano concertos, the opera Francesca da Rimini (1906), the tone poem From the Isle of the Dead (1909), a Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom (1910), and Symphonic Dances (1940).
 
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Ravel
Maurice Ravel - 拉威爾 - 1875-1937
Maurice Ravel youtube莫里斯•拉威爾 維基百科Maurice Ravel wikipedia拉威爾 googleMaurice Ravel google
法國作曲家。十四歲被巴黎音樂學院錄取。完成他的鋼琴學習後,他向佛瑞學習作曲,寫了重要的鋼琴曲《水之嬉戲》和《弦樂四重奏》。接下來的十年間,他創作了許多著名的樂曲,包括《夜之幽靈》(1908)和《加斯巴之夜》(1908)。他受佳吉列夫的委託完成了偉大的芭蕾樂曲《達菲尼與克羅埃》(1912)。其他作品包括歌劇《西班牙時光》(1911)和《兒童與巫師》(1925),組曲《高貴而傷感的圓舞曲》(1911)和《庫普蘭之墓》(1917),管弦樂《圓舞曲》(1920)和《波利樂舞》(1928),兩首鋼琴交響樂,以及許多優美的歌曲。作為一位細心、準確的管弦樂作曲家,拉威爾很有天賦,他的作品以其高超的技能受到普遍讚譽。至今仍是法國最受歡迎的作曲家。
French composer. At 14 he was admitted to the Paris Conservatoire. Completing his piano studies, he returned to study composition with G. Faure, writing the important piano piece Jeux d'eau and a string quartet. In the next decade he produced some of his best-known music, including Gaspard de la nuit for piano (1908) and Rapsodie espagnole (1908). His great ballet Daphnis et Chloé (1912) was commissioned by Sergey Diaghilev. Other works include the operas L'heure espagnole (1911) and L'enfant et les sortileges (1925), the suites Valses nobles et sentimentales (1911) and Le tombeau de Couperin (1917), the orchestral works La valse (1920) and Bolero (1928), two piano concertos, and many beautiful songs. A careful, precise worker, Ravel possessed great gifts as an orchestrator, and his works are universally admired for their superb craftsmanship; he has remained the most widely popular of all French composers.
 
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Respighi
Ottorino Respighi - 雷史碧基 - 1879-1936
Ottorino Respighi youtube雷斯皮吉 維基百科Ottorino Respighi wikipedia雷史碧基 googleOttorino Respighi google
義大利作曲家。1891到1901年間在波隆那學習音樂,後在俄羅斯管弦樂團演奏中提琴,並師從林姆斯基-高沙可夫,從他那裡學到了許多譜寫管弦樂曲的知識和技巧。他最著名的作品是絢麗多彩的音樂詩《羅馬的噴泉》(1916)和《羅馬的松樹》(1924)。他對古老的音樂感興趣,根據拉摩的作品改編了《鳥》(1927),並根據羅西尼的作品改寫了《幻想商店》。
Italian composer. After musical studies in Bologna (1891-1901), he played viola in a Russian orchestra and studied with N. Rimsky-Korsakov, from whom he learned much about orchestration. His best-known works are the colorful tone poems The Fountains of Rome (1916) and The Pines of Rome (1924). Interested in early music, he also produced such works as Gli uccelli (1927), based on works by J.-P. Rameau, and La boutique fantasque, based on works by G. Rossini.
 
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Richard Strauss
Richard Strauss - 理查•史特勞斯 - 1864-1949
Richard Strauss youtube理察•史特勞斯 維基百科Richard Strauss wikipedia理查•史特勞斯 googleRichard Strauss google
德國作曲家和指揮家。父親是慕尼黑宮廷樂團的法國號演奏員,他六歲就開始樂曲寫作,二十歲之前他的兩首交響樂和一首小提琴協奏曲已作了首次公演。1885年指揮家畢羅(H. von Bulow)挑選他作為自己的接班人。其後他轉向華格納式的音樂風格,開始寫作標題交響詩,作品有交響詩《唐璜》(1889)、《死與淨化》(1890)、《梯爾•歐倫施皮格爾有趣的惡作劇》(1895)、《查拉圖什特拉如是說》(1896)、《唐吉訶德》(1897)和《英雄的生涯》(1898)。1900年後轉向歌劇,他的第三部歌劇《莎樂美》(1905)初獲成功。從歌劇《厄勒克特拉》(1908)開始,他與奧地利詩人兼劇作家霍夫曼塔爾(H. von Hofmannsthal)開展一系列合作,其中包括他最傑出的歌劇《玫瑰騎士》(1910)、《阿里阿德納在納克索斯》(1912)和《沒有影子的女人》(1918)。此後他繼續寫作了八部歌劇。第二次世界大戰期間他滯留在奧地利,後來澄清他並沒有與納粹分子進行過合作。在多年少有作品問世之後,晚年又創作了幾部力作,包括《變形》(1945)和《四首最後的歌》(1948)。
German composer and conductor. Son of a horn player, Richard began composing at 6. Before he was 20, he had had major premieres of two symphonies and a violin concerto, In 1885 the conductor H. von Bulow made him his successor. A convert to Wagnerism, he began to write programmatic orchestral tone poems, including Don Juan (1889), Death and Transfiguration (1890), Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks (1895), Thus Spake Zarathustra (1896), Don Quixote (1897), and Ein Heldenleben (1898). After 1900 he turned to opera. His third opera, Salome (1905), was a succés de scandale, and with Elektra (1908) he began a productive collaboration with the poet Hugo von Hofmannsthal, with whom he wrote his greatest operas, including Der Rosenkavalier (1910), Ariadne auf Naxos (1912), and Die Frau ohne Schatten (1918). He later wrote eight more operas. He remained in Austria through World War II, but was later cleared of wrongdoing in connection with the Nazi regime. After many years writing lesser works, he produced several remarkable late pieces, including Metamorphosen (1945) and the Four Last Songs (1948).
 
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Rimsky-Korsakov
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov - 林姆斯基-高沙可夫 - 1844-1908
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov youtube林姆斯基-高沙可夫 維基百科Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov wikipedia林姆斯基-高沙可夫 googleNikolai Rimsky-Korsakov google
俄國作曲家。他在彼得堡大學海軍學校念書時結識了其他一些作曲家。巴拉基列夫對他很感興趣,從1867年起成為「強力五人團」的一員。後來跑去當船員,從第一次返航回來(1865)後完成了一支交響曲,由巴拉基列夫擔任指揮。1873年擔任其組建的海軍樂隊督察。他協助鮑羅定編寫了管弦樂《伊果王子》,並修改了穆索斯基的一些作品。他還寫了許多豐富多彩的歌劇,在俄國很受歡迎,其中包括《薩特闊》(1896)、《莫札特和薩里耶里》(1897)、《薩爾丹沙皇的故事》(1903)、《隱城基捷日傳奇》(1905)和《金雞》(1908)等。其他作品還包括三首交響樂、《舍赫拉查德》(1888)組曲和《俄國的復活節》序曲。他所有的作品都有精彩的管弦樂作曲方法。他的學生包括葛拉左諾夫、普羅高菲夫、雷史碧基和史特拉汶斯基。
Russian composer. While at St. Petersburg's College of Naval Cadets, he met other composers; M. Balakirev took a special interest in him, and from 1867 he was included among the Mighty Five. Returning from his first cruise as a midshipman in 1865, he finished a symphony, which Balakirev conducted. In 1873 he managed to have the post of Inspector of Naval Bands created for himself. He helped A. Borodin orchestrate Prince Igor and revised several of M. Mussorgsky's works. He wrote many colorful operas, much loved in Russia, including Sadko (1896), Mozart and Salieri (1897), The Tale of Tsar Saltan (1903), The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh (1905), and The Golden Cockerel (1908); other works include three symphonies, the suite Scheherazade (1888), and the Russian Easter Festival overture. All his works are distinguished by brilliant orchestration. His many students included A. Glazunov, S. Prokofiev, O. Respighi, and I. Stravinsky.
 
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Rossini
Gioachino Rossini - 羅西尼 - 1792-1868
Gioachino Rossini youtube焦阿基諾•羅西尼 維基百科Gioachino Rossini wikipedia羅西尼 googleGioachino Rossini google
義大利作曲家。童年時在教堂唱歌及出演歌劇中的小角色。十二歲開始作曲,十四歲進入波隆那音樂學校學習,在那裡主要創作宗教音樂。1812年起他以驚人的速度創作劇院作品。十五年中他一直主導了義大利歌劇的舞台。他的主要成功作品包括《阿爾及爾的義大利女郎》(1813)、《奧塞羅》(1816)、《塞維爾的理髮師》(1816)、《鵲賊》(1817)、《摩西的埃及旅程》(1818)、《科林斯之圍》(1826)和《塞米拉米德》(1823)。他的速度和冷淡態度使他看起來似乎顯得隨意粗心,但實際上並非如此。他創造的音樂規則一直主宰著義大利歌劇的形式直到威爾第的出現,而他的機智與運用新發明的能力則是無人可匹敵的。從1824年起他大部分時間都在巴黎度過,在那裡創作了其傑作《威廉•泰爾》(1829)。1832年後他的健康狀況不佳,鮮有作品,直到1868年問世了精彩的系列鋼琴套曲與歌曲集《我晚年之罪孽》。
Italian composer. He sang in church and in minor opera roles as a child, began composing at 12, and at 14 entered Bologna's conservatory, where he wrote mostly sacred music. From 1812 he produced theater works at a terrific rate, and for 15 years he was the dominant voice of Italian opera; his major successes included [opera]L'Italiana in Algeri (1813), [opera]Otello (1816), [opera]The Barber of Seville (1816), [opera]La Cenerentola (1817), [opera]Mosé in Egitto (1818), [opera]The Siege of Corinth (1826), and [opera]Semiramide (1823). His speed and nonchalant attitude made him seem more careless than he was; the musical formulas he devised would shape Italian opera until Giuseppe Verdi, but his wit and invention using them was unparalleled. From 1824 he spent much time in Paris, where he wrote his masterpiece, [opera]William Tell (1829). After 1832 his health was poor, and he composed little until the series of wonderful piano pieces and songs collected as [musiccomp]Sins of My Old Age (1868).
 
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Rozhdestvensky
Gennady Rozhdestvensky - 羅傑史特汶斯基 - 1931-
Gennady Rozhdestvensky youtube中文資料暫缺 維基百科Gennady Rozhdestvensky wikipedia羅傑史特汶斯基 googleGennady Rozhdestvensky google
中文資料暫缺
Rozhdestvensky was born in Moscow to musician parents as Gennady Nikolayevich Anosov, but adopted his mother's maiden name in its masculine form for his professional career. He studied conducting with his father Nikolai Anosov at the Moscow Conservatory and piano with Lev Oborin. Already known for having conducted Tchaikovsky's The Nutcracker ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre at the age of 20, he quickly established his reputation. He premiered many works of Soviet composers, including Edison Denisov's Sun of the Incas (1964), as well as giving the Russian premiere of Benjamin Britten's A Midsummer Night's Dream.
Rozhdestvensky is considered a versatile conductor and a highly cultured musician with a supple stick technique. In moulding his interpretations, he gives a clear idea of the structural outlines and emotional content of a piece, combined with a performing style which melds logic, intuition and spontaneity. He has been praised for his efficient rehearsals which he keeps short, and is noted for his habit of walking around the stage while conducting and not using a podium, even at concerts. Among the works dedicated to Rozhdestvensky is Sofia Gubaidulina's symphony Stimmen... Verstummen....
In November of 2008, Rozhdestvensky withdrew from scheduled performances with the Boston Symphony Orchestra. It was later reported by the Boston Globe that although rehearsals were going well, he was insulted by the marketing for the concert. Both the posters outside the hall, which listed the cello soloist, Lynn Harrell, more prominently, and the subscription brochure, which did not include the maestro in a section on prominent guest conductors, were unacceptable to him. The BSO released a statement regretting his cancellation. He was replaced by BSO assistant conductor Julian Kuerti.
 
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Saint-Saens
Camille Saint-Saens - 聖桑 - 1835-1921
Camille Saint-Saens youtube卡米爾•聖桑 維基百科Camille Saint-Saëns wikipedia聖桑 googleCamille Saint-Saens google
法國作曲家。他從孩提時代起即很富有天分,能做到過目不忘(十一歲時因演奏鋼琴出名,並要求獨奏貝多芬的奏鳴曲),後成為沙龍上的寵兒和即席演奏名人。為了促進法國作曲家的新音樂的發展,他在1871年成立了全國音樂學會。他的創作在效果上很華美,但並不深刻。在他的十三部歌劇中,《參孫與大利拉》(1877)是最成功的。他還寫了五首鋼琴協奏曲、三部交響樂(包括管風琴交響樂)和兩部大提琴行政區。他的詩曲《死之舞》(1874)和組曲《動物狂歡節》很有名。
French composer. Astonishingly gifted from childhood, with a phenomenal memory (at his debut piano recital at 11, he offered to play any Beethoven sonata without music), he became a darling of the salons and a celebrated improviser. To promote new music by French composers, he founded the Société Nationale de Musique in 1871. His compositions are often brilliant in their effects but not always profound. Of his 13 operas, Samson et Dalila (1877) had the greatest success. He wrote five piano concertos, three symphonies (including the “Organ” Symphony), two cello concertos, and three violin concertos; his tone poem Danse macabre (1874) and the suite Carnival of the Animals (1886) are widely known.
 
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Sawallisch
Wolfgang Sawallisch - 沃爾夫岡•薩瓦利希。沙瓦利許。沙瓦利修 - 1923-
Wolfgang Sawallisch youtube沃爾夫岡•薩瓦利希 維基百科Wolfgang Sawallisch wikipedia薩瓦利希 googleWolfgang Sawallisch google
沃爾夫岡•薩瓦利希(德語:Wolfgang Sawallisch,1923年8月26日-)是一位德國的指揮家和鋼琴家。薩瓦利希在1923年生於慕尼黑,1953年他成為亞琛最年輕的音樂總監。他1960年-1970年擔任維也納交響樂團的首席指揮,同時也是漢堡愛樂樂團的音樂總監。1970年-1980年他繼保羅·克萊特基之後成為瑞士羅曼德管弦樂團音樂總監,1971-1990年則是巴伐利亞國家歌劇院的藝術總監。從1993年起他開始指導費城管弦樂團。他錄製過很多唱片,到過很多歌劇院和音樂節作演出,如拜羅伊特音樂節、薩爾斯堡音樂節等。他的演出目錄很廣,包括古典,浪漫時期的,特別是後浪漫主義的理查·施特勞斯和保羅·辛德米特的作品。作為鋼琴家他則曾為迪特里希·菲舍爾-迪斯考和伊莉莎白·施瓦茨科普夫伴奏。沃爾夫岡·薩瓦利希教授在2003年建立了一個基金會,用於促進年輕音樂家的教育。
Sawallisch was born in Munich, and began his career at the opera house in Augsburg in 1947.
In 1953 he conducted the Berlin Philharmonic, becoming the youngest person ever to do so. When he debuted at the Bayreuth Festspielhaus conducting Tristan und Isolde in 1957, he was the youngest conductor ever to appear there as well.
From 1960 to 1970 he was Principal Conductor of the Vienna Symphony. From 1971 to 1992, Sawallisch was Music Director of the Bavarian State Opera, and for several years from 1983, concurrently was the general manager of the company.
From 1993 to 2003 he was Music Director of the Philadelphia Orchestra, and is currently its Conductor Laureate. He is also Honorary Conductor Laureate of the NHK Symphony Orchestra, Tokyo. He was the recipient of a Suntory Music Award in 1993.
After his tenure with the Philadelphia Orchestra, Sawallisch returned for guest-conducting appearances in Philadelphia and at Carnegie Hall. However, ill health related to orthostatic hypotension prevented Sawallisch from conducting in subsequent years. In an article from The Philadelphia Inquirer of August 27, 2006, Sawallisch himself stated his retirement from the concert podium:
"It can happen without announcement that my blood pressure is too low. This instability gives me the necessity to finish my career after 57 years of concert and opera conducting."
Sawallisch and his wife Mechthild were married for 46 years until her death in 1998. They had a son, J?rg. Sawallisch is an honorary member of The Robert Schumann Society. In 2003, Sawallisch helped to establish a music school in Grassau, Bavaria, naming the school the Wolfgang Sawallisch Stiftung (Wolfgang Sawallisch Foundation).
 
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Schubert
Franz Schubert - 舒伯特 - 1797-1828
Franz Schubert youtube弗朗茨•舒伯特 維基百科Franz Schubert wikipedia舒伯特 googleFranz Schubert google
奧地利作曲家。他從擔任小學教師的父親那裡學習小提琴,從哥哥那裡學習了鋼琴。他加入維也納男童唱詩班的前身(1808),在那裡取得了很大進步,使薩利耶里(A. Salieri)開始對他實行教導(1810-1816)。在他的家人的堅持下,他擔任教師。同年,演奏他的第一部彌撒,他還譜寫了第一批重要歌曲。1815年寫了兩部交響曲和一百多首歌曲以及四部舞台作品。1818年為了追求自由而停止在父親的學校任教,開始擔任埃斯特哈齊(Johann Esterhazy)的女兒們的導師。1819-1820年他寫了偉大的《鱒魚五重奏》和一部彌撒。1821年出版他的二十支最流行的歌曲,取得很大成功。同年,他寫了歌劇《阿方索與艾斯特雷拉》。1822年開始意識到自己的疾病(可能是梅毒)是致命的,但他驚人的創作力仍延續下去,包括他未完成的交響曲和《流浪漢狂想曲》。一生的最後五年一直受到疾病困擾,但其音樂創作仍然繼續下去。包括系列歌曲《美麗的磨坊少女》、《冬之旅》和最後三首鋼琴奏鳴曲和《C大調交響曲》。最後幾年因疾病而生活痛苦,但並不貧窮,實際上他的偉大已獲大家的認可。去世時年僅三十一歲,當時所寫的作品已經超過了歷史上任何一名作曲家。他創作的六百多首歌曲使利德(lied)成為一種嚴肅的題材,並開啟了歌曲在接下來幾十年間的發展。
Austrian composer. He learned violin from his schoolteacher father and piano from his brother. He joined the precursor of the Vienna Boys Choir (1808), making such quick progress that A. Salieri undertook to guide his training (1810-16). At his family's insistence, he was trained as a schoolteacher. That same year, his first mass was performed, and he composed his first important songs. In 1815 he wrote two symphonies, more than 100 songs, and four stage works. In 1818, seeking independence, he quit teaching at his father's school to tutor Johann Esterházy's daughters. In 1819-20 he wrote the great “Trout” Quintet and a mass. In 1821, 20 of his most popular songs were published with great success, and he wrote the opera Alfonso und Estrella. His amazing production continued in 1822, despite his first awareness of the disease (possibly syphilis) that would kill him, with the Unfinished Symphony and the “Wanderer” Fantasy. He was often ill during his last five years, but continued his production of music, including the song cycles Die schöne Müllerin and Winterreise, the last three piano sonatas, and the “Great C Major” Symphony. His last years were made miserable by illness, not poverty; in fact, his greatness was widely recognized. He died at 31, having produced more masterpieces by that age than almost any other composer in history. His 600 songs made the lied a serious genre and sparked its great development in subsequent decades.
 
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Schumann
Robert Schumann - 舒曼 - 1810-1856
Robert Schumann youtube羅伯特•舒曼 維基百科Robert Schumann wikipedia舒曼 googleRobert Schumann google
德國作曲家。他是一名書商的兒子,曾立志成為小說家。在遵從母親的願望學習法律後,開始同維克(F. Wieck)學習鋼琴而不去上課。1830年休學一學期成為了名家,並寄居在維克家中。1831年開始創作。1833年因早期交響樂得不到賞識、手部神祕受傷和長期疾病的困擾曾一度試圖自殺。後來重新振作,在1834年創辦了《音樂新雜誌》。他被十六歲的克拉拉吸引,後者也不顧父親的警告愛上了他。他們在1840年私自結婚,克拉拉父親的努力阻撓最終失敗。舒曼創作的第一個階段隨著大量鋼琴樂曲的出版而結束了(1837-18739),當時的作品包括《大衛同盟舞曲》、《嘉年華》、《兒時情景》和《克萊斯勒偶記》,他之後在一個時期專注於一個單獨的流派。1840年的「歌曲之年」後,他譜寫了《詩人之戀》、《女人的愛情與生命》和其他一百多首曲子。接下來的一年,他專心創作交響樂,譜寫了他的四部交響樂中的兩部(第一號和第四號)以及他的鋼琴協奏曲。他在1842年專心創作室內樂。最後的創作時期中,開始創作戲劇或半戲劇性的作品。由於精神上的惡化(或許同梅毒和家庭精神病史有關)加劇,他被送進了療養院,兩年後去世。
German composer. Son of a bookseller, he considered becoming a novelist. After taking up law studies to please his mother, he began studying piano with Friedrich Wieck instead of attending classes. In 1830 he took a term off to become a virtuoso and moved in with Wieck. In 1831 he began composing. The poor reception of an early symphony, a mysterious hand injury, and a long illness led to a suicide attempt in 1833. He emerged from it by starting a music journal, Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, in 1834. He was attracted by the 16-year-old Clara Wieck, who returned his feelings, to her father's alarm; the latter's efforts failed to prevent their marriage in 1840. The first phase of Schumann's compositional life ended with the publication (1837-39) of much piano music, including Davidsbündlertánze, Carnaval, Kinderszenen, and Kreisleriana, and he thereafter concentrated on a single genre at a time. The “year of song,” 1840, resulted in the song cycles Dichterliebe and Frauenliebe und -leben and over 100 other songs. His next year was spent with orchestral music, producing two of his four symphonies (nos. 1 and 4) and his piano concerto; in 1842 he concentrated on chamber music. In his last productive years, he turned to dramatic or semidramatic works. His mental deterioration (probably associated with both syphilis and a family history of mental illness) accelerated; he was placed in a sanatorium and died there two years later.
 
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Seiji Ozawa
Seiji Ozawa - 小澤征爾 - 1935-
Seiji Ozawa youtube小澤征爾 維基百科Seiji Ozawa wikipedia小澤征爾 googleSeiji Ozawa google
日裔美國指揮家,在日本東京桐朋學園學指揮。後赴歐洲,受業於卡拉揚。應伯恩斯坦之邀擔任紐約愛樂交響樂團助理指揮(1961-1965),接著分別就任多倫多交響樂團(1965-1969)、舊金山交響樂團(1970-1976)音樂總監與擔任波士頓交響樂團指揮兼音樂總監(1973-2002)。2002年任維也納國立歌劇院音樂總監。他在歐洲的歌劇指揮事業也很傑出。
Japanese-U.S. (Manchurian-born) conductor. After initial conducting experience in Japan, and study at Tanglewood, he went to Europe to study with H. v. Karajan. He became assistant to Leonard Bernstein at the New York Philharmonic (1961-65), then held posts in Toronto (1965-69) and San Francisco (1970-76) before becoming music director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 1973. He has also had a distinguished opera-conducting career in Europe.
 
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Shostakovich
Dmitri Shostakovich - 蕭士塔高維契 - 1906-1975
Dmitri Shostakovich youtube季米特里•肖斯塔科維奇 維基百科Dmitri Shostakovich wikipedia蕭士塔高維契 googleDmitri Shostakovich google
俄羅斯作曲家。出生於知識分子家庭,並由於青年時代發生的政治騷動,十三歲就進入聖彼得堡音樂學院學習。他所創作的第一交響曲(1925)引起了國際注意。作品顯示出其能夠充分駕馭大調的能力。能表現多種風格,既有樸實的抒情,又有辛辣的諷刺,還有宏偉的史詩。他以後創作的交響曲以及《鼻子》(1928)、《黃金時代》(1930)和《姆欽斯克的馬克白夫人》(1932)等戲劇作品,可能是他最「現代派」的作品。《真理報》對《姆欽斯克的馬克白夫人》的批評,很有可能出自史達林,迫使蕭士塔高維奇採用了一種完全不同的風格。他於戰時創作的《第七交響曲》,被認為是對德軍入侵的描繪,成為愛國主義的象徵。在政府公開譴責其音樂後(1948),他再次消沈,並寄個人情緒於室內樂作品中,尤其體現在他的十五首四重奏中。1950年代後期解凍之後,他創作了兩部極為個性化的交響曲,包括13號以及《巴比雅》(1962)。他被認為是史特拉汶斯基之後最偉大的俄國作曲家。
Russian composer. Shaped by his intellectual parents and the political turmoil of his youth, he was admitted to the St. Petersburg Conservatory at 13. His Symphony No. 1 (1925) attracted international attention, displaying such distinctive traits as a convincing command of a large scale and an expressive palette ranging from unaffected lyricism to bitter satire to grand heroics. His next symphonies and such theater works as The Nose (1928), The Age of Gold (1930), and Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk (1932) were perhaps his most “modernistic” works. The denunciation of Lady Macbeth in Pravda (1936), perhaps by Joseph Stalin himself, led to his adopting a very different style. His wartime Symphony No. 7, thought to portray the German invasion, became a symbol of patriotism. After his music was denounced by the government in 1948, he was again devastated, and began putting his most personal feelings into chamber works, particularly the remarkable 15 string quartets. With the “thaw” of the late 1950s, he composed two outspokenly personal late symphonies, including no. 13, “Babi Yar” (1962). He is remembered as the greatest Russian composer to follow I. Stravinsky.
 
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Sibelius
Jean Sibelius - 西貝流士。西伯留斯 - 1865-1957
Jean Sibelius youtube讓•西貝流士 維基百科Jean Sibelius wikipedia西貝流士 googleJean Sibelius google
原名Johan Julius Christian。芬蘭作曲家。幼年時開始學習小提琴和作曲,後跟隨高德馬克(1830-1915)學習作曲。在專注於室內樂後,他很快成為了一名交響樂作曲家,並開始捲入芬蘭脫離俄國的獨立運動。他的愛國熱情被融入了他以芬蘭民間傳說為藍本的作品,如:《庫雷沃交響曲》(1892),《凱萊利亞》組曲(1893),《卡勒瓦拉》傳奇樂章(1893)和《芬蘭頌》(1900)。他最重要的成就是他的七組交響樂(1899-1924),小提琴奏鳴曲(1903)和《塔比奧拉》(1926)。他的作品顯現出典型的悲傷的浪漫主義情調,在國際上享有盛名。在他生命的最後三十年裡,由於對當時流行的音樂沒有靈感,加之長期酗酒,他沒有再譜寫任何作品。
Finnish composer. He played violin and composed as a child, and later studied composition with Karl Goldmark (1830-1915). After initially concentrating on chamber music, he rapidly developed into an orchestral composer. He became involved with the movement for national independence from Russia, and his nationalism resulted in such works based on Finnish folklore as Kullervo (1892), the Karelia suite (1893), Legends from the Kalevala (1893), and Finlandia (1900). His major achievements were his seven symphonies (1899-1924), the violin concerto (1903), and Tapiola (1926). His works, marked by a sweeping but melancholy Romanticism, achieved huge international popularity. Out of sympathy with prevalent musical trends and perhaps damaged by years of heavy drinking, he wrote nothing in his last 30 years.
 
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Smetana
Bedrich Smetana - 史麥塔納 - 1824-1884
Bedrich Smetana youtube貝多伊齊•史麥塔納 維基百科Bedřich Smetana wikipedia史麥塔納 googleBedrich Smetana google
捷克(波西米亞)作曲家。起初想成為鋼琴家,但是他的第一場音樂會(1847)結束了這一夢想,後來開設兩所音樂學校,教授音樂。1860年代轉向歌劇,1866年成為國家劇院指揮。他的第二部歌劇《被出賣的新娘》(1866)經多次修改後贏得持久的成功。隨後又創作了《達里波》(1868),其後又完成了五部歌劇。1874年因梅毒而變聾,但是他晚年仍然創作了一些最著名的音樂,包括《莫爾道河》(1875),四重奏《我的一生》(1876)。1883年精神崩潰,後死於精神病院。他的音樂的強烈的民族特點使他成為卓越的捷克民族主義作曲家。
Czech (Bohemian) composer. He determined to become a pianist, but his first concert (1847) ended his hopes, and he thereafter taught music, opening two schools of music. In the 1860s he turned to opera, becoming conductor of the national theater in 1866. His second opera was The Bartered Bride (1866), which gained lasting success after many revisions. Dalibor (1868) followed and also became popular; he would complete five more operas. Though rendered deaf by syphilis in 1874, in his last decade he wrote some of his most beloved music, including Má vlast (1875), with the famous “The Moldau,” and the quartet “From My Life” (1876). He became insane in 1883 and died in an asylum. The strongly Czech character of his music made Smetana the preeminent Czech nationalist composer.
 
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Solti
Georg Solti - 喬治•蕭提 - 1912-1997
Georg Solti youtube喬治•索爾蒂 維基百科Georg Solti wikipedia蕭提 googleGeorg Solti google
受封為格奧爾格爵士(Sir Georg)。匈牙利裔英國指揮家。十二歲首次登台表演鋼琴,後隨巴爾托克(B. Bartok)學習鋼琴,又隨高大宜(Z. Kodaly)學習作曲。1936-1937年在薩爾斯堡擔任托斯卡尼尼(A. Toscanini)的助手。戰爭爆發時他在瑞士,繼續彈鋼琴,成為1942年日內瓦國際鋼琴比賽的冠軍。後來受命任慕尼黑的巴伐利亞國家歌劇院(1946-1952)、法蘭克福歌劇院(1952-1960)的音樂總監。作為柯芬園皇家歌劇院(1961-1971)的音樂總監,1958-1965年他首次完全錄製華格納的《尼貝龍的指環》,成為世界上最受歡迎的作品。1969-1991年在其領導下,芝加哥交響樂團獲得非凡的榮譽和成功。
Hungarian-British conductor. After making his piano debut at 12, he studied piano with Bela Bartok and composition with Z. Kodaly. He was A. Toscanini's assistant at Salzburg (1936-37). In Switzerland when war broke out, he returned to piano, winning the 1942 Geneva International Competition. He was brought to Munich to lead the Bavarian State Opera (1945-52), then moved to Frankfurt (1952-61). As director of Covent Garden (1961-71), he made the first complete recording of Richard Wagner's Ring cycle (1958-65), which remains one of the celebrated recordings of all time. Under Solti (1969-91), the Chicago Symphony Orchestra won extraordinary praise and success.
 
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Stokowski
Leopold Stokowski - 史特考夫斯基 - 1882-1977
Leopold Stokowski youtube利奧波德•斯托科夫斯基 維基百科Leopold Stokowski wikipedia史特考夫斯基 googleLeopold Stokowski google
原名Antoni Stanislaw Boleslawowich。英裔美籍指揮大師和樂師。儘管口音奇怪,他確實出生於英國,並曾就讀於倫敦皇家音樂學院和牛津皇后學院。擔任樂器手並指揮一些音樂會後,他到辛辛那提交響樂團任指揮(1909-1912),並取得極大成功。後到費城交響樂團,將之發展成1912-1938年的世界盛會,創造了享譽全球的「費城之音」。他創作了很多現代音樂,很早就意識到錄音的重要性。他還在迪士尼的影片《神話》(1940)和其他電影中擔任演員,成了影星。他利用自己的名氣,促進那些躑躅不前的樂團發展,例如他自己在1962年建立的美國交響樂團。他積極支持新音樂,對結束美國音樂風格的地域差別作出很大貢獻。
British-U.S. conductor and organist. Despite his exotic accent, he was born in England and studied at the Royal College of Music and Oxford University. After holding organist positions and conducting a handful of concerts, he became conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony (1909-12), with great success. From there he moved to the Philadelphia Orchestra, and in the years 1912-38 made it a world-class ensemble, creating the lush “Philadelphia sound.” He programmed much contemporary music, and he grasped very early the importance of recording. He made himself a star, appearing in Walt Disney's Fantasia (1940) and other films, and used his fame to help foster fledgling music organizations, including the American Symphony Orchestra, which he formed in 1962. His strong advocacy of new music did much to end the provinciality of American musical taste.
 
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Stravinsky
Igor Stravinsky - 史特拉汶斯基。史塔溫斯基 - 1882-1971
Igor Stravinsky youtube伊戈爾•斯特拉文斯基 維基百科Igor Stravinsky wikipedia史特拉汶斯基 googleIgor Stravinsky google
俄國出生移民法國和美國的作曲家。其父為俄國傑出歌劇男低音歌唱家之一。史特拉汶斯基早年決定學作曲,師從林姆斯基-高沙可夫(1902-1908)。1908年創作《焰火》,演出經紀人佳吉列夫聽過演出後,約請他為芭蕾舞劇《火鳥》(1910)創作音樂。《火鳥》的成功使他成為俄羅斯年輕一代作曲家中的傑出人物。其後芭蕾舞劇《彼得魯什卡》(1911)再獲成功。1913年的《春之祭》以其發自內心的激情以及野獸派的音響效果成為音樂史上的代表作。該劇在巴黎的首場公演帶來了一場騷動,確立了他的國際地位。此後他開始轉向短小的器樂和聲樂效果,創作了芭蕾清唱劇《婚禮》(1923)。儘管當時受到第一次世界大戰的影響,許多作曲家正在迴避對19世紀末葉作品的過度摹仿,他卻採用有所節制的新古典主義紛繁雜然的不同風格,並取材於舊日音樂中的一些搞笑片段,創作了《管樂八重奏》(1923)。他採用新古典主義手法的主要作品有《伊底帕斯王》(1927)、芭蕾舞劇《阿波羅》(1928)、清唱劇《聖詩交響曲》(1930)、《C大調交響曲》(1940)和《三個樂章的交響曲》(1945),以及歌劇《浪子的歷程》(1951),並以該歌劇為其古典主義的創作作了一個總結。維也納作曲家荀白克去世後,史特拉汶斯基從1954年起開始了系列主義作曲階段,並很快形成自己的作品風格。後期作品有芭蕾舞劇《阿貢》(1957)、《哀歌》(1958)、《樂章》(1959)和《安魂曲》(1966)等,《阿貢》是他眾多由巴蘭欽編舞的芭蕾舞劇中的最後一部。
Russian-French-U.S. composer. Son of an operatic bass, he decided to be a composer at 20 and studied privately with N. Rimsky-Korsakov (1902-8). His Fireworks (1908) was heard by Sergey Diaghilev, who commissioned him to write the Firebird ballet (1910), which made him Russia's leading young composer. The great ballet score Petrushka (1911) followed. His next ballet, The Rite of Spring (1913), viscerally exciting and brutalist in its effect, was a landmark in music history; its Paris premiere caused a virtual riot, and Stravinsky's international notoriety was assured. He turned to smaller forces for the ballet Les noces (1923), and adopted a radically different style of restrained neoclassicism—employing often ironic references to older music—with his Octet (1923), as many were turning away from the excesses of the late 19th century, associated with the causes of World War I. His major neoclassical works included Oedipus rex (1927), the ballet Apollo (1928), the Symphony of Psalms (1930), the Symphony in C (1940), and the Symphony in Three Movements (1945), and culminated in the opera The Rake's Progress (1951). After A. Schoenberg's death, from 1954 he employed serialism, of which he soon devised his own version. His later works include Agon (1957)—the last of his many ballets choreographed by George Balanchine—Threni (1958), Movements (1959), and Requiem Canticles (1966).
 
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Svetlanov
Evgeny Svetlanov - 史維特諾夫 - 1928-2002
Evgeny Svetlanov youtubeEvgeny Svetlanov 維基百科Evgeny Svetlanov wikipedia史維特諾夫 googleEvgeny Svetlanov google
1928年出生於莫斯科的史維特蘭諾夫(1928-2002),學自葛尼辛音樂學校,之後進入莫斯科音樂院跟隨夏波林(Shaporin)、涅高茲(Neuhaus)與高克(Gauk)學習。1951年畢業後即指揮莫斯科地方樂團首次登台,三年後指揮波修瓦歌劇院樂團,1965年更取代伊凡諾夫(Konstantin Ivanov)成為俄羅斯國家交響樂團USSR總監,直到2000年為止。史維特蘭諾夫的錄音數量相當可觀,在俄羅斯作曲家作品之外,德奧作品也多有涉獵。
Evgeny Fyodorovich Svetlanov (September 6, 1928 – May 3, 2002) was a conductor and composer and - less well-known - a pianist.
Svetlanov was born in Moscow and studied conducting at the conservatory there. From 1955 he conducted at the Bolshoi Theatre, being appointed principal conductor there in 1962. From 1965 he was principal conductor of the USSR State Symphony Orchestra (now the Russian State Symphony Orchestra). In 1979 he was appointed principal guest conductor of the London Symphony Orchestra.
In 2000 Svetlanov was fired from his post with the Russian State Symphony Orchestra by Vladimir Putin's minister of culture, Mikhail Shvydkoi. The reason given was that Svetlanov was spending too much time conducting abroad and not enough time in Moscow.
Svetlanov was particularly noted for his interpretations of Russian works - he covered the whole range of Russian music, from Mikhail Glinka to the present day. He was also one of the few Russian conductors to conduct the entire symphonic output of Gustav Mahler.
His own compositions included a string quartet (1948), symphony (1956), Russian Variations for harp and orchestra (1975), and a piano concerto (1976) among other works.
Svetlanov was also an extremely fine pianist, two notable recordings being Rachmaninov's Piano Trio no.2 in d minor, and a disc of Medtner's piano music.
Warner Music France has issued an '?dition officielle Evgeny Svetlanov' featuring Svetlanov's legacy of recordings as conductor and pianist, which by July 2008 had run to 35 volumes of CDs, often multiple-CD boxed sets. The biggest of these is the 16-CD box of the complete symphonies of Nikolai Miaskovsky, to whose music Svetlanov was devoted.
 
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Szell
George Szell - 塞爾 - 1897-1970
George Szell youtube暫缺 維基百科George Szell wikipedia喬治•塞爾 googleGeorge Szell google
匈牙利裔美籍指揮家。十一歲即作為鋼琴演奏家首演,二十歲生日之前就已成為鋼琴演奏家、指揮和作曲家,與柏林愛樂樂團同台演出。曾在德國許多城市擔任歌劇指揮,包括柏林(1924-1930)和布拉格(1930-1936)。戰爭爆發後移民美國,先後在紐約市大都會歌劇院(1942-1946)和克利夫蘭交響樂團(1946-1970)擔任指揮。在那裡他排練極為苛刻,並以其高度奉獻精神贏得樂團演奏者們的熱愛。他指揮樂隊所獲得的傳奇般的精確效果使該樂團成為全世界最優秀的樂團之一。
Hungarian-U.S. conductor. He made his debut as a pianist at 11, and before his 20th birthday had appeared with the Berlin Philharmonic as pianist, conductor, and composer. He established himself as an opera conductor in various German cities, including Berlin (1924-30), and Prague (1930-36). When war broke out, he settled in the U.S., conducting at the Metropolitan Opera (1942-46) and then with the Cleveland Orchestra (1946-70). There he imposed stern discipline but won his players' devotion by his own fierce dedication. The legendary precision he obtained from the orchestra made it one of the world's finest.
 
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Tchaikovsky
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky - 柴可夫斯基 - 1840-1893
Tchaikovsky youtube彼得•伊里奇•柴可夫斯基 維基百科Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky wikipedia柴可夫斯基 googleTchaikovsky google
俄國作曲家。從幼年時代就對音樂靈敏,產生了濃厚的興趣。柴可夫斯基十四歲時在他母親去世後開始嚴肅作曲。1862年柴可夫斯基開始在新聖彼得堡音樂學院學習。1863年成為自由作曲家。從1866年開始柴可夫斯基在莫斯科音樂學院任教。他的《第一號鋼琴協奏曲》由畢羅在波士頓初次公演,獲得極大成功。1875年他受大劇院芭蕾舞團委託創作了《天鵝湖》。1877年他接受富有的梅克(N. von Meck,1831-1894)的委託,梅克後來成為柴科夫斯基的資助人並且長期信件往來(1877-1890),不過他們同意永不碰面。接著柴可夫斯基創作了《葉甫蓋尼•奧涅金》(1878)。柴可夫斯基是同性戀者,但是仍有短暫的婚姻;三個月的不幸婚姻以後,柴可夫斯基試圖自殺。這以後的創作也因為他的精神上的危機而失色。後來的創作有芭蕾舞劇《睡美人》(1889),歌劇《黑桃皇后》(1890)以及偉大的芭蕾舞劇《胡桃鉗》(1892)。他的《b小調第六交響曲》(1893)在他死於霍亂的前四天首次公演。一種說法是他的性關係激怒了貴族,他被迫自殺,但這種說法毫無根據。他的芭蕾舞劇是19世紀最偉大的,他的交響樂也經久不衰。柴科夫斯基的音樂和諧、旋律優美感人,管弦樂作曲多彩、獨特。
Russian composer. Sensitive and interested in music from his early childhood, Tchaikovsky turned to serious composition upon his mother's death, when he was 14. In 1862 he began studying at the new St. Petersburg Conservatory, and by 1863 he was living by freelancing as a musician. From 1866 he taught at the Moscow Conservatory. His [musiccomp]Piano Concerto No. 1 (1875) was premiered by H. von Bulow in Boston and became immensely popular. In 1875 he wrote [musiccomp]Swan Lake on commission from the Bolshoi Ballet. In 1877 came a commission from the wealthy Nadezhda von Meck (1831-1894), who became his patron and longtime correspondent (1877-90), though they agreed never to meet. The opera [musiccomp]Eugene Onegin (1878) soon followed. Though homosexual, he married briefly; after three disastrous months of marriage, he attempted suicide. His composition was overshadowed by his personal crisis for years. His [musiccomp]Sleeping Beauty ballet (1889) was followed by the opera [musiccomp]The Queen of Spades (1890) and the great ballet [musiccomp]The Nutcracker (1892). His [musiccomp]“Pathétique” Symphony (1893) premiered four days before his death from cholera; claims that he was forced to commit suicide by noblemen outraged by his sexual liaisons are unfounded. His ballets were the greatest of the 19th century, and his symphonies have never lost their popularity. His music is characterized by tuneful, open-hearted melodies, impressive harmonies, and colorful, picturesque orchestration.
 
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Toscanini
Arturo Toscanini - 托斯卡尼尼 - 1867-1957
Arturo Toscanini youtube阿圖羅•托斯卡尼尼 維基百科Arturo Toscanini wikipedia托斯卡尼尼 googleArturo Toscanini google
義大利指揮家。九歲進入音樂學校,學習大提琴,鋼琴和作曲。以大提琴演奏家的身分開始其職業生涯。在威爾第的《阿依達》(布宜諾斯艾利斯,1886)代替一位不稱職的指揮之後,在多家義大利歌劇院擔任指揮,初次公演劇目為《醜角》(1892)和《波希米亞人》(1896)。曾數次出任米蘭史卡拉歌劇院的音樂總監(1898-1903, 1906-1908, 1920-1929),並於1946年開放了重建後的歌劇院。在大都會歌劇院任音樂總監期間(1908-1915),向全世界公演了《金色西方的女孩》,在美國公演了戈東諾夫(B. Godunov)和盧利(J.-B. Lully)的《阿依達》。於1930年成為第一位在拜羅伊特擔任指揮的非德國人,但為了對納粹政策表示抗議,他結束了在德國的演出。於1937年組建了NBC管弦樂團,他一直指揮該樂團直到1954年退休。
Italian conductor. He entered a conservatory at 9, studying cello, piano, and composition. He began his professional life as a cellist. After substituting for an indisposed conductor in Verdi's A?da (Buenos Aires, 1886), he conducted in various Italian opera houses, giving the premieres of I Pagliacci (1892) and La Boh?me (1896). He served as music director of La Scala several times (1898-1903, 1906-8, 1920-29), and he opened the restored house in 1946. As musical director at the Metropolitan Opera (1908-15), he gave the world premiere of The Girl of the Golden West, and the U.S. premieres of Boris Godunov and J.-B. Lully's Armide. In 1930 he became the first non-German to conduct at Bayreuth, but he stopped performing in Germany to protest Nazi policies. The NBC Orchestra was formed for him in 1937, and he conducted it until his retirement in 1954.
 
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Verdi
Giuseppe Verdi - 威爾第 - 1813-1901
Giuseppe Verdi youtube朱塞佩•威爾第 維基百科Giuseppe Verdi wikipedia威爾第 googleGiuseppe Verdi google
義大利歌劇作曲家,其父為客棧主,自幼顯露出音樂才華。靠彈風琴維生。經人資助赴米蘭學習。1839年作歌劇《奧貝托伯爵》,在史卡拉劇院上演,獲成功。第一部喜歌劇《一日王》(1840)首演失敗,加上喪妻失子之痛,發誓不再創作。待威爾第創傷愈合後,創作了《納布科》(1842)首演獲巨大成功並從此立足樂壇。其三部名作《弄臣》(1851)、《吟遊詩人》(1853)及《茶花女》(1853)相繼問世後,使他成為義大利家喻戶曉的著名歌劇作曲家。《弄臣》以音樂連貫地表現劇情,突破了宣敘調與詠嘆調的界限,以二重唱為核心,《吟遊詩人》旋律充滿強烈激情,而《茶花女》則親切抒情。1871年受委託為慶祝蘇伊士運河通航作大歌劇《阿伊達》,該劇在刻畫人物及運用樂團手法上之精巧程度達到登峰造極境界。1873年作唯一的一首弦樂四重奏,後為悼念義大利愛國詩人曼佐尼作《安魂彌撒》。又根據莎士比亞悲劇和喜劇寫了《奧賽羅》(1887)和《福斯塔夫》(1893),後者是其最後一部歌劇。
Italian composer. An innkeeper's son, he showed talent early. While earning a living as an organist, he began to write operas in Milan; in 1839 his Oberto was successfully performed at La Scala, and it initiated Verdi's long association with the publisher Giulio Ricordi. His next opera, Un giorno di regno (1840), was a failure. Much worse, Verdi's two young daughters and his wife died. Ready to give up, he was manipulated into starting Nabucco (1842); it became his first big success, and was followed by the equally successful I lombardi (1843). For the rest of the decade he wrote a hit opera every year. Rejecting the prevailing structure of Italian opera—a patchwork of open-ended scenes and inserted arias, duets, and trios—he began seeking ways of maintaining momentum, and began conceiving of an opera as a series of integrated scenes, then as unified acts. Attracted to stories in which people's private and public lives come into conflict, he produced a series of masterworks, including Rigoletto (1851), La traviata (1853), Simon Boccanegra (1857), Un ballo in mascara (1859), Don Carlos (1867), and Aìda (1871). His long open liaison with the soprano Giuseppina Strepponi (1815-1897) attracted censure, which he rejected. A fervent nationalist, he became a great national figure. After composing his great Requiem (1874), he decided to retire, but when Giulio Ricordi brought him together with A. Boito, initially to revise Simon Boccanegra, their mutual esteem led to the two great operas of Verdi's old age, Otello (1886) and Falstaff (1890).
 
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Vivaldi
Antonio Vivaldi - 韋瓦第。韋瓦迪。韋發第。維瓦爾第 - 1678-1741
Antonio Vivaldi youtube安東尼奧•維瓦爾第 維基百科Antonio Vivaldi wikipedia韋瓦第 googleAntonio Vivaldi google
義大利作曲家。由其父教授小提琴。1703年受神職。他的富有特色的淡紅色頭髮後來使他得到「紅髮神父」的渾名。多年從事小提琴教學,並指揮威尼斯女孤兒院的樂團。約1718年後,以作曲家和劇團經理人的雙重身分投入歌劇活動。韋瓦第完善了古典三樂章協奏曲的形式。確定了協奏曲三個樂章的快-慢-快布局。大膽地把疊歌(里托奈羅)和獨奏段落並列,為獨奏器樂家的炫技表演開創了新的可能性。他的小提琴與弦樂隊協奏曲集《和諧靈感》(1711)出版後,在國際間備受矚目。1725年創作的《四季》獲得極大成功。韋瓦第所作協奏曲有五百餘首。巴哈曾採用其協奏曲為作曲資料。
Italian composer. Taught violin by his father, he was ordained a priest in 1703, and became known as the “Red Priest” for his red hair. He spent most of his career teaching violin and leading the orchestra at a Venetian girls' orphanage. After c. 1718 he became more involved in opera as both composer and impresario. His concertos were highly influential in setting the genre's three-movement (fast-slow-fast) form, with a returning theme (ritornello) for the larger group set off by contrasting material for the soloists, and he popularized such effects as pizzicato and muting. His L'estro armonico (1711), a collection of concerti grossi, attracted international attention. His La stravaganza (c. 1714) was eagerly awaited, as were its successors, including The Four Seasons (1725). In all he wrote over 500 concertos. His most popular sacred vocal work is the Gloria (1708). Though often accused of repeating himself, Vivaldi was in fact highly imaginative, and his works exercised a strong influence on J.S. Bach.
 
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Wagner
Richard Wagner - 華格納 - 1813-1883
Richard Wagner youtube理察•華格納 維基百科Richard Wagner wikipedia華格納 googleRichard Wagner google
德國作曲家。童年分別在德勒斯登和萊比錫度過,並接受作曲課程。由於他的才華,他的老師拒絕收費。他的第一部歌劇《妖魔》(1834)。接著的《愛情的禁令》(1836)演出徹底的失敗。《黎恩濟》(1840)的一舉成功,使他在《漂泊的荷蘭人》(1843)和《唐懷瑟》(1845)中有著更開拓的精神。1848年的政治動亂被捕,他被迫逃亡至蘇黎世。這期間他寫出具有影響的散文。宣稱貝多芬以後音樂達到極限。《未來的藝術作品》將音樂和戲劇融為一體(即總體藝術作品)。1850年《洛亨格林》首演。他開始創作他的傑出的四部曲《尼貝龍的指環》,《指環》需要大規模的布局,於是提出「主導動機」的概念。與韋森東克的不倫之戀,使他放下《指環》。的第三部《齊格飛》的創作工作,寫出嚴肅的作品《崔斯坦與伊索德》(1859),該劇打破了調性的連結。1863年他出版了《指環》的腳本,並尋求德國國王支持他的藝術家的夢,後來獲得巴伐利亞國王路德維希二世的資助。不久,科西瑪•李斯特•比洛為他生了第一個小孩,他們在華格納的妻子去世後,於1870年結婚。1860年代晚期至1880年代初期,華格納完成了《紐倫堡的名歌手》、《齊格飛》、《眾神的黃昏》和《帕西法爾》等。他也監督在拜羅伊特(1872-1876)興建的節日劇院,以便能演出他的歌劇。他的驚人的作品使華格納成為西方音樂和西方文化史上最具影響和重要的人物之一。
German composer. His childhood was divided between Dresden and Leipzig, where he had first composition lessons; his teacher refused payment because of his talent. His first opera, Die Feen (1834), was followed by Der Liebesverbot (1836); the premiere performance was so unprepared that the event was a fiasco, and he henceforth determined not to settle for modest productions. The success of Rienzi (1840) led him to be more adventurous in The Flying Dutchman (1843), and even more so in Tannháuser (1845). Caught up in the political turmoil of 1848, he was forced to flee Dresden for Zurich. During this enforced vacation, he wrote influential essays, asserting (following G. W. F. Hegel) that music had reached a limit after Ludwig van Beethoven, and that the “artwork of the future” would unite music and theater in a Gesamtkunstwerk (“total artwork”). In 1850 he saw Lohengrin produced. He had begun his most ambitious work, The Ring of the Nibelung, a four-opera cycle. The need for large-scale unity brought him to the concept of the leitmotiv. He ceased work on the Ring's third opera, Siegfried, in the throes of an adulterous love with Mathilde Wesendonk, and wrote an opera of forbidden love, Tristan und Isolde (1859), which also seemed to break the bonds of tonality. He published the Ring librettos in 1863, asking if some German prince would support his artistic dreams, and Ludwig II of Bavaria responded. Shortly thereafter, Cosima Liszt von Bülow became the mother of the first of his children; they married in 1870, after his own wife's death. From the late 1860s to the early 1880s, Wagner completed work on Die Meistersinger, Siegfried, Götterdá;mmerung, and the long-deferred Parsifal, as he also oversaw the building of the great festival theater at Bayreuth (1872-76) that would be dedicated to his operas. His astonishing works made Wagner one of the most influential and consequential figures in the history of Western music, and indeed of Western culture.
 
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Walter
Bruno Walter - 華爾特 - 1876-1962
Bruno Walter youtube布魯諾•瓦爾特 維基百科Bruno Walter wikipedia華爾特 googleBruno Walter google
原名Bruno Walter Schlesinger。德裔美籍指揮家。1901年成為馬勒的助理,畢生宣傳馬勒的音樂。他首次演出了馬勒的《第九號交響曲》(1912)。曾任慕尼黑歌劇院指揮(1914-1922)和薩爾斯堡指揮,以及其他樂團的指揮。1939年到美國。常在紐約市大都會歌劇院指揮。任紐約愛樂管弦樂團、費城交響樂團和洛杉磯愛樂樂團指揮。
German-U.S. conductor. An associate of G. Mahler, he was long a faithful proponent and interpreter of Mahler's music, giving the world premieres of Das Lied von der Erde and the Symphony No. 9. He held positions in Munich (1913-22) and at Covent Garden (1924-31), but thereafter served more often as a guest conductor than a music director. After moving to the U.S. in 1939, he often conducted the New York Philharmonic (recording as the Columbia or CBS Symphony), the Metropolitan Opera, the Philadelphia Orchestra, and the Los Angeles Philharmonic, and was admired for the warmth of his interpretations.
 
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Weber
Carl Maria von Weber - 韋伯 - 1786-1826
Carl Maria von Weber youtube卡爾•馬利亞•馮•韋伯 維基百科Carl Maria von Weber wikipedia韋伯 googleCarl Maria von Weber google
德國作曲家。樂師和劇院經理之子,莫札特妻子的表兄弟,自幼多病。曾隨海頓之弟學習作曲(1737-1806),後師從福格勒神父繼續學習。透過福格爾介紹,被任命為布雷斯勞的音樂總監(1804-1806)。1813任布拉格歌劇院指揮,事必躬親,使他幾乎無暇創作,遂於1816年辭職。1819年他寫下了著名的《邀舞》和《音樂會短曲》(1821)。《魔彈射手》也是這期間的作品,1821年在柏林上演時使他一舉成名,成為國際巨星。他的下一部歌劇《歐麗安特》(1823),因腳本拙劣而未成功。他的最後一部作品《奧伯龍》1826在倫敦首演,僅在倫敦受到歡迎。後死於英國,得年三十九歲。韋伯德國古典音樂過渡到浪漫主義時代的主要人物,被稱為德國民族歌劇的先驅。
German composer. Son of a musician and theater manager, and first cousin to W.A. Mozart's wife, he was born with a deformed hip and was never strong. He had composition lessons with Michael Haydn (1737-1806) and with Abbé Vogler (1749-1814), who recommended him for a post in Breslau (1804-6). His operas began to have success, and took over direction of the Prague Opera (1813-16), which he saved from ruin, but finding little time for composition, he resigned. Showing signs of the tuberculosis that would kill him, he began to compose more prolifically. Appointed kapellmeister for life in Dresden, he began work on his masterpiece, Der Freischütz (1821), whose premiere made him an international star. The libretto for his next opera, Euryanthe (1823), was so bad that its admirable music never succeeded, and his final opera, Oberon (1826), composed for London, was a success there but not elsewhere. He died in England at 39.
 
 
 
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